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Krasnoyarsk (Russia), June 30 - July 2, 1998

On June 30 - July 2, 1998 the International Conference "90-TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE TUNGUSKA PROBLEM" was held in Krasnoyarsk, Russia.
The main purpose of the conference was to summ up the 90 years of the research of the 1908 Tunguska event and to discuss a possible role of Tunguska-like events in the past and in the future. Besides Russians, representatives from USA, UK, Italy, Japan attended the conference. A few dozens reports were delivered. Some of them were strictly scientific, some less. The ideas about the Tunguska origin varies from versions of 'classic' meteorite to UFO and 'poltergeist-like'. Some new and interesting preliminary data on a field research appeared. After the conference a trip to the Tunguska epicenter took place. The conference was widely popularized by Russian TV, newspapers, etc.. The Proceedings of the conference are to be published soon.

Here I'd like to comment some abstracts of the conference, which you can find below.
I begin with the only attempt to criticize the tectonic interpretation of the Tunguska (see a link to my article nearby). Alekseev V.A. mentioned in his abstract that "We have produced direct proof that the Tunguska explosion is not the result of a tectonic event." At the conference he has presented the "proof". It was a few words that the shape of the Tunguska forest fall can't be produced by an earthquake (apparently he was hinting on seismic waves action). And indeed, the forest fall hardly could be produced by seismic waves action, even taking into account that during the last years earthquakes with isotropic (i.e. non-double-couple) mechanism were revealed in volcanic regions. But how does it relate with the tectonic interpretation? Those, who read about it, are aware that it doesn't assign the forest fall to the seismic waves action (but the waves could play some small role, of course). So this the only "argument" against the tectonic interpretation of the Tunguska is to be rejected, as having nothing to do with it.
Bidyukov B.F. attracts attention to the problem of thermo-luminiscent anomalies in the Tunguska epicentral area, which, in his opinion, point to radioactivity. I'd like to remark that the tectonic interpretation of the Tunguska easily explains the anomalies as produced by electric discharges. The probable role of the latter in Tunguska is supported by Galantsev's G.P. laboratory research, which produced some Tunguska-like tree-burn by electric discharges (at the conference Galantsev G.P. pointed out that the discharges could be tectonic origin).
For those, who are interested in astroblemes, it could be interested to read the Khryanina L.P. abstract on finding of shock-metamorphism in Tunguska epicenter rocks (in quartz, in general). So, despite she never visited the epicenter, she proposed that it was not a paleovolcano, but an ancient meteoritic crater. Here I can just say that results of all geological reseaches of the epicenter leave no doubt that it is a paleovolcano - a part of paleovolcanic complex (see, for example, Sapronov N.L. et al. abstracts), which is situated practically right in the center of the Tunguska geocon (see the Zherebchenko I.P. abstract).
Lavbin Yu.D. has illustrated his reports at the conference by videoes of "Tunguska-like" damage traces in various parts of Krasnoyarsk region. If his preliminary data be confirmed, it would be a one more large problem for the meteorite interpretation of the Tunguska (and no problem for the "tectonic Tunguska").
There are several abstracts on (let me call them) mini-Tunguskas of terrestrial origin. Mason H. describes the 1993 West Australian event, Tagliaferri E. et al. describe the 1996 Honduran event. Free D.L. presents some general information on meteor-like phenomena geophysical origin.

In general, the idea that the Tunguska was a terrestrial origin became rather popular at the conference (there are about a ten abstracts related with the terrestrial origin).

Much more information on Tunguska you can find at my (i.e. Andrei Ol'khovatov) www-site directory .

Here are abstracts of the conference below. I got the English version from Novosibirsk, Russia. They were transformed from WORD97-file into the text one, so some mathematical signs etc. can be missed, or distorted. Also I was not able to correct all possible misprints/mistakes.




N. B. Abramov, I. K. Doroshin, O. I. Klykov, V. O. Krasavchikov, D. V. Yashkov

Tomsk, Russia

It is known that after the Tunguska meteorite explosion radial fall out of the trees in the area occurred and the forest fire started. It is obvious that by having defined accurate borders of the fire, its intensity and the direction in which the fire sp read out, we can determine the zone of original ignition and accordingly, the power of the irradiated energy of explosion. The methods of the work were as follows: on the sample area 20x20 m we found 5 larches with burn marks and defined the year of the damage, that is - of the fire. If only on one tree we found signs of 1908 fire, we concluded that catastrophic fire took place in this area. Then the azimuth of the burn mark was measured and height at which the burn mark was encountered. We then describ ed the surface vegetation cover, terrain relief and the accurate coordinates. Then we took a cross-section sample of the tree with a burn mark. After it had been dried and the cross section thoroughly polished, the year of a fire was identified once more . By this technique we studied more than 200 lots. As of today we can present the following results: The forest fire was not characterized by лclassical╗ form of spreading, that is: by a continuous front, less intensive wings and weakly intensive rear. The most probable scenario is that it started in the whole territory simultaneously. The area of the w ood fire correlates with the area of felled trees. It is possible that the лbutterfly wings╗ shape of the radial felled trees area may have been influenced by an earlier, pre-catastrophe fire. At least the North East лwing╗ definitely coincides with the border of 1908 and pre-catastrophe fires. The лTunguska meteorite╗ explosion eyewitnessesТ accounts that describe the forest fire in the areas at a considerable distance from its epicentral location are not a fantasy, as it had been stated before. The fact that the traces of such a fire had not been evident is explained by the earlier 1884 - 1891 fire, that had destroyed the forest vegetation cover and as a result the possibility the 1908 fire spreading.


V. I. Avinsky

Non-Traditional Investigations Center лAlpha╗, The Samara UFO Club, лAssociation of Ancient Astronauts╗, Russia

Passions surrounding the Tunguska phenomenon that took place 90 years ago still run high. Purely astronomical hypotheses (the culprit being a meteorite or comet) do not satisfy many investigators who continue to propose new models of this event. No one h as yet been able to put forward forcible arguments to disprove the suppositions made by the science-fiction writer A. P. Kazantsev of a spaceship explosion and the astronomer F. U. ZiegelТs idea of the explosion of an experimental probe, made for some un known purpose. We will make an attempt to come closer to an understanding of this purpose. We must note that the investigators confined themselves to the study of atmospheric and surface phenomena. Moreover, the Tunguska phenomenon was investigated as an isolated event. In our research an attempt has been made to consider the Tunguska explosion from the point of view of a geologist and ufologist and to compare it with several other anomalous phenomena: ancient megalites, cornfield circles and UFO activity. A fundamentally new instrument of analysis is the frame alpha-pentastructure of nature that we have discovered. The Tunguska explosion proved to have taken place exactly on the axis of the Asian edge of the Avinsky spherotoid in one of the active centers of the planet, located at the latitude of the mantle D1. It is known that the shape of the Earth is far from perfect and it has several humps and dents. It has been found that these geoid humps and dents also lie exactly along the spheropentoid axis. Wh at is more, the highest level of the geoid (or ocean) has been recorded around the British Isles and around Japan, and the biggest dent stretches from the Indian Ocean through Еthe Tunguska taiga to the Arctic Ocean. These facts prompted a study of other global geological peculiarities of the Tunguska catastrophe area. It is only here that unique basalth magma ladder formations have developed. It is here that a strong negative anomaly of the magnetic field, a negativ e anomaly of gravitation, a higher heat flow and a mantle substance of higher density are found. It has been noted for the first time that the explosion occurred over relatively plastic rock formations between rigid sialic nuclei. And finally, the epicen tre of the explosion coincided with the intersection of three large linear breaks and the crater of an ancient volcano. The solidified magma rocks of the volcano present a perfect conductor of the explosion energy waves into the mantle. Thus, with the help of the spheropentoid, a лmagic crystal╗, it is possible to link the Tunguska catastrophe with the global geo-dynamics of the planet and come closer to the answer to the question: what was the aim or purpose of this super-explosion? Th is question has not so far been asked by scientists. We can suppose that the Tunguska explosion was made by unknown intelligent powers, to make corrections in the shape of the planet, to reduce the ocean humps around the British Isles and the European seashores, as well as around Japan. In other words, the Tunguska explosion had prevented a new Great Flood, which could have been achieved by infusion of 11-dimensional field energy of a superpower into the EarthТs mantle. There appears a chance to give a basically new answer to the three sacramental questions: why are there so many megalites in England, why does somebody leave mysterious circles in the fields, most frequently again in England, and why do the many UFOs not leave us alone in peace? The main purpose of the megalites, in our opinion, was to serve as a life-support system for ancient civilizations. They could serve (and, perhaps, still serve) as acupuncture needles regulating the abyssal energy to prevent the sea encroachment on the l and. TodayТs most intricate figures in the fields should be regarded as traces of external energy pumping into some special points for stabilization, лfreezing╗ of deep tectonic shifts. As far as the UFOs are concerned, the unknown intelligent forces can ensure a global ecological technology with a view to preserving civilization on earth.


V.A. Alekseev

Russian Federation State Scientific Center, Troitzkiy Institute for Innovation and Thermonuclear Research (TRINITI); Troitzk, Moscow region, Russia.

We adduce proofs of explosive origin of the fragments found previously after the Tunguska explosion, the data received from experiments. [1] The method of combinational light scattering was used to study burns on trees. The aim is to reveal differences between burns caused by forest fire and burns caused by fast heat or plasma shock. Is лwarm╗ nuclear synthesis possible? Modeling conditions, similar to the process of Tunguska explosion give a positive answer. In buried peat layers in the vicinity of the Tunguska phenomenon, it would be useful to organize a search for aromatic organic compounds (for example, benzopyrene) since the presence of such substances can be used as an indicator of this or that composit ion of volatile gases, escaped in the moment of the explosion. Laboratory modeling being carried out by us suggests high efficiency of such indication. We have produced direct proof that the Tunguska explosion is not the result of a tectonic event. References: [1] Alekseev V. A. New Aspects of the Tunguska Meteorite Problem. Planet. Space. Science. Vol.46, N 2/3, p.p.169 - 177, 1998


1D. F. Anfinogenov, 2L. I. Budaeva

1. PLL лTROTs╗, Tomsk, 2. TSU, Tomsk, Russia

The sensational discovery of the traces of vital activity of micro-organisms in some meteorites gives us grounds to return to the problem of the origins of meteorites, in particular, to consideration of the version about the planet of Phaeton as the fore father of a large class of asteroids and a number of meteorites which by their chemical composition and mineralogical associations would present different depths of an Earth-type planet. The study of Mars with the help of space apparatus landing on its s urface confirms the idea about the possibility of the formation of some meteorites from the composition of its crust. Indeed, on the surface of Mars there are loose accumulations formed as a result of water and wind activity and temperature changes. Ther e are also sedimentary rocks generated from the loose accumulations metamorphosed under the influence of volcanic and tectonic activity caused in their turn by inner processes in bowels of the Earth as well as by asteroid strokes. Probably the mechanisms , ways and trajectories of лchopping off╗ and flying away of matrix bodies of meteorites can be explained by the fact that the meteorites got into so called plume or the crown of the eruption caused by the fall of astrobleme-forming asteroids with their acceleration by springy forces of the target return-kick and steam-gases formed with evaporationof the projectile- asteroid and of the substance of the central areas of the target. There is one more variant, namely, the eruption and acceleration of the d ebris of sedimentation rocks buried under under the cone of giant volcanoes during cataclysmic blust eruptions. There is also a possibility of the third variant according to which the events developing as in the second variant were accompanied by the app earance of an astrobleme not far from giant volcanoes. Analogous reasoning is also applicable for those satellites of giant planets whose dimentions are comparable to those of Mars as well as to Phaethon, a hypothetical twin-planet of Mars in the categor y of Earth-like planets. The fact that Phaethon is unobservable in the orbit between Mars and Jupiter can hardly been accounted for by complete destruction of the planet due to inner or even outer causes. But the removal of Phaethon from the orbit as a r esult of a collision with an asteroid similar to the biggest ones in the asteroid band is quite a possible supposition. Presumably, the planet lost, either fully or partially, its crust as well as a part of its лbowels╗ including solid sedimentation rock s. It is quite probable that one of the satellites of the giant planets is the remnant of Phaethon, and Phoebus, the flaky satellite of Mars, is just a fragment of the crust of Phaethon and among the meteorites on the Earth there are possibly some repres entatives of the three. The discovery of a mysterious boulder (enigma-stone, deer-stone, JohnТs stone) in the epicentre of the Tunguska catastrophe in 1972 imparts a particular acuteness to the development of this trend and gives an unexpected turn to the study of the Tunguska meteorite. The boulder is a quarz-disseminated conglomerate-gravelite sand-stone belonging to highly strong sedimentationrock consisting by 98.5% of SiO2. There are evident signs of its high speed deceleration in the local permafrost sedimentations after the intrusion of the boulder into the soil from above at the calculated velocity of not less than 500 m/sec. The direction of the intrusion coincides with the probable azimuths of the trajectory projection of the Tunguska cosmic body. We consider it necessary to continue investigations of the possible genetic connection of the Boulder with the Tunguska phenomenon, in a more general aspect , to continue the development of the hypothesis of meteorites composed of extraterrestrial solid sedimentation rocks which differ but faintly from those of terrestrial origin, and to continue working out approaches to their identification.


T. A. Arkhangelskaya, V. D. Nesvetailo, L. P. Rikhvanov

Tomsk, Russia

Annual tree rings carry information about various chemical elements assimilated by them, including natural as well as technogenic radionuclides. The aim of the given reseach is to study the distribution of the elements in annual rings. In compliance with the dendrochrono-indication method suggested by V. D. Nesvetailo tree cross-sections (of two radii) of a tree taken from the area of the Tunguska meteorite fall (Bublic peat bog) were selected. Fragmentation radiography (f-radiography) - one of nuclear- physics methods of analysis - was used for determining the regularity of uranium (U235) and other fission elements (Am, Pu, Np, etc.) distribution in the annual rings of a tree (larch). Tree cross-sections, on which a detector (lavsan) was placed, were u sed as preparations. Then they were irradiated at the research nuclear reactor of the TPU. After the drop of the targeted activity, the lavsan films were treated with 40% KOH solution at a temprature of 40 degrees C. Then they were studied under a microscope. In accordance with the research data, graphs of track distribution in the annual rings were drawn. The results thus produced do not show a pronounced anomaly in the distribution of fission elements at the period of the meteorite fall (1908). However, at the same time a tendency of the growth of the level of fission elements accumulation beginning at the end of the previous century is observed. The maximal level was reached in the 1980-s. The rings of 1899-1923 were studied by the instrumental neutron-activation analysis method, in the nuclear-geochemical laboratory of the TPU, on the presence of the following elements: Na, Ca, Br, Au, Sm, La, Ce, Th, Cr, Hf, Sr, Se, Ba, Cs, Ag, Sc, Rb, F e, Zn, Co, Hg, Sb, K. Within the given limits of detection in the annual rings of the first radius significant content of La, Cs, Se, Uf and Th was not revealed. And in the annual rings of the second radius the same was characteristic of La, Se, Sb. Acco rding to the data of these researches the maximal content of Zn, Br, Hg, Ca, Cr, Na, Au, Sc, Ba, Sr, K in the annual ring of 1908 - the year of the fall of the Tunguska meteorite - is fixed in the graphs. Comparing the results received during the studies of tree cross-sections by the two methods it is necessary to stress the fact that the f-radiography method allowed us to detect global changes connecting with the introduction of fission elements into the environment. According to the other components studied, the picture is less definite, presumably, their global fallout level was low in this area. Thus the possibility of using these methods with the aim of studying tree annual rings as indicators of changes in the environment is evident. Investigations in this direction should be continued. The results obtained by us with the help of the f-radiogr aphy and INAA methods show that the intrusion of foreign objects (Tunguska meteorite) into the environment brings changes that are reflected in its invironment.


B. F. Bidyukov

Novosibirsk, Russia

Among various qualifiers applied to the phenomena denoted as лthe Tunguska meteorite╗ one collocation found different contexts (from scientific-theoretical to banal-everyday) stands out particularly. This qualifier is лthe Tunguska Problem╗. A conglomera tion of sub-themes is united under this general definition. And it is high time to give a thorough consideration to the task of singling out the components of this conglomeration. The question arises why it is called лa problem╗? Why is the whole complex of circumstances connected with the Tunguska event given the status of a problem? When was it comprehended as a problem for the first time? In order to gain an understanding of t he essence of the questions raised it is necessary to turn to the chronology of researches in this field. The period between 1908 and 1921 can be characterized as a period of phenomena fixation. This period did not contain a task component, nor did it have a problem constituent. The pre-war period connected with the activity of L.A.Kulik passed under the badge of the search for material remains of a big meteorite. L.A Kulik was solving a practical task of finding some substance. The ultimate result of the search seemed to be evi dent and there was no concern about the means of investigation. Thus, this period did not contain a problem constituent either and was typically task-like. The problematic motive appeared in the Tunguska theme for the first time in connection with the discussion between representatives of astronomy, on one hand, and adherents of KazantsevТs idea about the explosion of an extraterrestrial space ship, on the other. The controversy led to opponents to thoroughly substantiate their argumentation and to pay greater attention to contradictions. It also made them aware of the adequate means for proving their hypotheses. At this historical moment the researchers o f the Tunguska phenomenon found themselves in the situation described by S. Lem in his novel лSolaris╗: лThey neither knew what was the Tunguska meteorite nor did they know by what means it can be found out╗. And this is the essence of the basic methodol ogical problem of the Tunguska meteorite. Having been raised at the end of 50s it has not been solved up to now. Being currently unable to solve the basic problem the investigators have to concentrate their efforts on settling smaller and narrower questions that lie within the channel of the major problem. The problematic context is caused by the whole complex of c lear-cut paradoxical fixations characterizing a number of fundamental difficulties, which can hardly be removed within the framework of the existing conceptions. The clear-out field of paradoxicality demands an urgent study of the degree of interdependance of the paradoxes and working out complex and coordinated projects and programmes for further research.


B. F. Bidyukov

Novosibirsk, Russia

The efforts of researchers of the Tunguska problem are being concentrated on solving the problems connected with the necessity to remove the contradictions resulting from a number of paradoxes. Each of the paradoxes contains some logic contradiction refl ecting, as a matter of fact, the state of researches at the moment. Here is a list of the major paradoxes: 1) energy, 2) substance, 3) trajectory, 4) fire, 5) burn (ribbon-like branch-injuries), 6) heralds (atmospheric anomalies), 7)radioactivity. Let us consider radioactivity paradox at greater lenght. It attracts our attention due to the following circumstances. First of all, everything that somehow connected with radioactivity has been mentioned only in passing for quite a period of time; moreo ver, - as some annoying nonsense. Secondly, of late, volumes have been accumulated thanks to numerous publications and still unpublished catalogues. These materials ought to be systematized and reconsidered in the context of new scientific approaches. As far as we know there have not been any attempts so far to single out the whole complex of radioactivity contradictions as one more paradoxal aspect of the Tunguska problem. Weakening of thermo-luminescent characteristics of rock as a result of a shock-wave compression becomes apparent in natural conditions only with impact interaction, and their local intensification was observed in laboratory samples of alpha-quartz with m egabar effects which is far beyond the conditions of the Tunguska catastrophe. The only adequate source of thermo-luminiscent anomalies in this area might be radioactive emanation and, moreover, in a broad spectral range (from thermal to strong). Studies , which have been carried out from the middle of the 60s up to the present day by three independent groups of researchers using various natural materials, have shown statistically valid pecularities of TL-characteristics field distribution. There have be en found structures with parameters of low indices. Their formation must be connected with the effect of thermal irradiation. As for the structures showing intensification of TL-characteristics above the midbackground level they are undoubtedly connected with the activity of strong penetrating irradiation (X-rays, gamma-rays, neutron and proton streams). Weakening of TL is also possible with beyond-threshold streams of strong radiation (the so called лradiation annealing╗) is exceeded. A complex of various research of radioactivity traces in the area of the catastrophe shows either their complete absence (argon-39 method), or some fluctuations within the limits of the natural background (betta-activity, radiocarbon). At the same time t he TL-method undoubtedly points to the traces of the activity of strong radiation which were revealed in the minerals of the underlying stratumof the surface. It looks as if radioactivity is present and absent at the same time. In our opinion, accentuating the phenomena mentioned above will attract attention to this aspect of the Tunguska problem and will assist in further definition of the tasks aimed at solving the paradox under consideration at the problem stage of research.


G. S. Bybin


The Tunguska meteorite is a лdried╗ comet belonging to the category of short-period comets with small perihelion distances. An ordinary comet turns into a лdried╗ one as a result of heating its body consisting of gas-hydrate ice by the sun. In the gas-hy drated ice there are a number of frozen-in stone particles of various sizes. These particles get differentiated in the proces of sublimation: small particles (dust) volatilize together with gases while bigger particles remain on the surface where thus a stony crust is formed. Having reached a considerable thickness and acquiring sheer solidity this surface layer protects the ice-body, which it covers from the further intensive evaporation. The comet loses its peculiar tail consisting of a swarm (stream) of meteorite particles and becomes unobservable. Outwardly, it then looks like an asteroid. Consequences. 1. Suddenness of the appearance of the Tunguska meteorite in proximity of the Earth. 2. Belonging of the Tunguska meteorite to the meteor shower of Day Arietids which have no parent comet. (Precedent: asteroid #3200 discovered in 1983 was identified as a лdried╗ comet - the parent of a well-known swarm of Hemenids.) A лdried╗ comet is a source of explosion-danger due to chemical energy preserved in the crystals of gas-hydrate ice (methane, ammonia, carbonic acid gas and other frozen gases). With a temperature rise from one volume of ice there can be formed 100-150 v olumes of gas. Consequences. 1. The formation of soot under the stony crust as a result of thermal decomposition of methane in the conditions of the absence of air-access. During this process the comet gets лdried╗ being still in cosmic space. The soot formation on the surface of the stony layer in the conditions of incomplete methane burning when entering the EarthТs atmosphere. 2. The high reflective capability of soot is the cause of the blindingly bright fire-ball, the powerful dust trail and the unusualy bright twilight over Western Siberia and Europe. 3.Discovering лthe corks╗ from the stony layer as a result of the gas pressure growth reaching the explosive level. 4. Discrete and prolonged gas emissions from the лuncorked╗ holes. The emissions look like jet-engine exhaust trailes and contain stone particles, soot and dust. (Precedent: лdrying╗ MarcosТs, Arenda-RollandТs, DonattiТs and other comets.) 5. Break -up of the comet into two objects and their manoeuvring caused by the reactive forces of high speed gas flows. (Precedents: divarication of the comet of Biela; deviations of such comets from their initial orbits.) 6. Soft landing of the Tunguska meteorite upon the swamps. Splitting up into fractions of gas-hydrate ice. Quick sublimation process. Formation of a column of an explosive mixture. Methane burning and an explosion releasing a great amount of heat. Peculi ar burn of trees. Ammonia diffusion into the forest soil. Vertical explosion originating from the earth surface. 7. Ammonia is an effective, nitrogene-containing fertilizer. And its derivatives, such as urea, nitrous acid and others are strong mutagens.As a result there is an intensive tree-growth and mutations of plants and animals. The Earth captures the лdried╗ comet at the evening side at 6 oТclock on the 7th of June 1908. It was the date of the biggest activity of the meteor shower of Day Arietids. The comet was flying from the Sun at a visible speed of 39 km/sec. During the str uggle against лthe capture╗ which lasted 22 days and nights and 12 hours the speed dropped to 9 km/sec and the Earth received the comet from the morning side.


Yu.V. Volkov

Moscow State Uni. SRCC, Moscow

June 30, 1998 marks the ninetieth anniversary of the unusual natural phenomenon, called the лTunguska meteorite╗ (TM). TM is a an intricate complex of processes, involving phenomena in the atmosphere, ionosphere and the EarthТs crust, the cause remaining a mystery till the present day. Under the influence of the growing body of accumulating facts, the scientific conceptions of the nature of TM have evolved from the лiron meteorite╗ hypothesis (L.A.Kulik,1921) and the лstone meteorite╗ hypothesis (K.D.Yankovsky,1930) to the лsmall comet ╗ hypothesis (PH.Wipple,1934, K.Florensky,1959). The latter was the object of criticism by F.Ziegel. Dissatisfaction with the explanations gave rise to a stream of new hypotheses that now number over a hundred. Over the last few years many authors have come to the conclusion that we are dealing with a terrestrial лtectonic╗ phenomenon (A.Yu.Ol'khovatov, 1991; A.F.Chernyaev, 1992; G.G.Kochemasov,1998 and others.) This supposition has been corroborated by the chara cter of the graph лlatitude-time╗ for powerful earthquakes (M =/>8) over the period 1904 Ц1980, which revealed a sectioned лfan-like╗ structure with the centre : South Pole Ц the year 1908,5 (Volkov Yu.V. et al., 1997) The paper is devoted to the study o f this unexpected link. The hypothesis of the relativistic лsolenoid-condenser╗ as a possible explosion mechanism is also under consideration.


G. P. Galantsev, SAA, Russia, 660014, Krasnoyarsk, P.O. Box 486 A. A. Ivanov, Nizhneye Priangarye Development Fund, Russia, 660017, Krasnoyarsk, Lenin St. 111.

I. M. Suslov. Chairman of Krasnoyarsk Northern Peoples Assistance Committee, undertook a business trip to the River Chunya in March, 1926. The scientific part of the trip, aimed at the study of the 1908 Tunguska explosion eyewitness reports had been co-o rdinated with the Krasnoyarsk branch of the Geographical Society. The scientific co-ordination of the boundaries of the Tunguska Event came as a result of the already available descriptions given by A.I.Sobolev, I.N.Kartashov. S. V.Obruchev. The analysis of the results of questioning of eyewitnesses of the fall of the Tunguska meteorite during the congress (the suglan) of the Evenks allowed I.M.Suslov to compile a detailed map of the TM catastrophe zone between the rivers of Kimchu and Hushm o and propose one the first versions the asteroid character of the Tunguska catastrophe. The manuscript of I.M.SuslovТs scientific paper made a great impression on the Academy of Sciences, which facilitated a speedy arrangement of KulikТs first expedition for the investigation of the Tunguska meteorite. A meeting with the members of the Krasnoyarsk branch of the Geographical Society was held on the 9.02.27 in I.M.SuslovТs flat in Krasnoyarsk where L.A. Kulik got all the information on the route and the ways and means of getting to the boundary of the Tu nguska felled-tree area, as well as the recommendation and guarantee letters from the Krasnoyarsk Northern PeoplesТ Assistance Committee. L.I. KulikТs first expedition to the area of the Tunguska catastrophe set out from the Taishet station on 14.03.27. KulikТs appreciation of the assistance his expedition got in 1928 by way of technical equipment, direct participation and initiative in the all round investigation of the epicentral marshes in the felled-tree zone, the prediction of the possibility of dr illing and every possible administrative assistance was conveyed by naming the famous crater after Suslov, as well as one of the summits on the лKulikТs Path╗


G. P. Galantsev

Russia, 660014, Krasnoyarsk, P.O.Box 486

The model of TM transformation into a storm cloud, which was suggested before, can be considered as a modification of the comet hypothesis of the Tunguska catastrophe. In accordance with this model at the final stage of the event most probably there was a classical electric discharge of atmospheric electricity. The hypothesis based upon an atmospheric electricity discharge finds its validity in the anomalies of the Tunguska forest-fall tree burns and the fire. Tape-like burn injuries of larch-trees, лbird talon╗ burns, carbonization of the butt-ends of torn-off tree tops in the epicentre caused by coronating discharges from branch poins of coniferous trees have been experimentaly tested on the model of the positive coronal discharge from branch points. The conditions were close to natural ones. Photographs of needle burns of pines, spruces and larches carried out in laboratory conditions were compared with the description of лbird talon╗ and tape-like burns of tree crouns. Identity of a valid level was stated. In the first degree of approximation, within the framework of the similatory theory, a criterion of similarity of the transformation of independent and coronating discharges into streamer-like (spark) ones was deduced in reference to the suggested model of electric discharge. A table of possible electric parameters of the storm-formation model of the TM is presented. The occurrence of an independent discharge of atmospheric electricity after the explosion stage of the TM reformation does not exclude the possibility of the occurrence of a non-independent component of the electric discharge. And under certain circumsta nces the realization of its smouldering type in the stratosphere during the period between 29.06 and 1.07.1908 was also possible.


B. N. Golubov

Scientific Council on the problems of the biosphere under the Presidium of the RAS. Russia, 109017, Moscow

The pecularities of the geological structure of the area of the research for traces of the Tunguska explosion and the petrographic composition of Stoikovich Mountain rock (John stones), which is considered by some researchers to be of extraterrestrial or igin, are the object of the research. The presence in the rock a great number of small particles of virgin iron has been revealed. Since the nickel and cobalt admixtures is indicative of either cosmic or terrestrial origin of rock, a quantitative spectra l analysis (LM-1) of the particles mentioned above has been performed. It is also customary to associate the consequences of the Tunguska explosion with the formation of small-dispersion condensate consisting of the finest silicate and metallic balls. Th ere has been discovered a heightened concentration of those small balls in the peat strata of 1908. To perfect the methods of search for the traces of the Tunguska explosion in the area under consideration it is suggested: a) to determine characteristic marking signs of лthe catastrophe stratum╗ of 1908 which will allow to unmistakably identify it in the area; b) to subject to analysis the composition of the microspherules found in contemporary peat and to compare their composition with the material composition of the analoguos formations contained in older rock; c) to compare the petrographic composition of the rock debis of John stones and the composition of organic substance contained in them with the composition of the rock of pre-mesozoic formations. A joint solution of these tasks will allow to more strictly determine or reject the validity of searching for the traces of the Tunguska blast of 1908 in the area under consideration. The issue of the social-economic decisions connected with the activity of the Tunguska State Nature Preserve as a constituent part of Evenkia depends on the results of these researches.


G.D. Kovalenko

Siberian Aero-Space Academy, 660014, Krasnoyarsk, P.O.Box 486, Russia

The investigations of the Tunguska event over the past 90 years have not lead to any definite conclusions as to its mechanism or the main indications preceding or accompanying the cosmic catastrophe. Thanks to the great effort of enthusiasts conseq uences of the Event have been ascertained, to a certain degree of reliability, judging from the remaining evidence of a huge felled-tree area in the vicinity of the supposed epicentre of a most powerful energy impulse of unknown origin. Not one of t he existing meteoritic hypothesis has been corroborated though most intense investigations have been carried out in this particular direction. This is understandable, for what could be more convincing than a fragment cosmic substance dating b ack to the time of the Tunguska phenomenon? However, from the point of view of the genesis of manifestation of any processes in the surrounding space we believe one should be guided by the paradigm of their informational and energy unity. The above mentioned paradigm has ancient roots. Now adays, in the semi-official sciences it has been revived in the form of an assertion of a universal unification which implies a simultaneous evidence of all indications on the material, energy and informational planes. The main report presents the fundamental principles of techno-genesis of material transmutations in visible and indirectly indicated spacial planes , described by the phenomenologies of Newton, Einstein, Diraque, Plank, Vernadsky,. Shipov. At hermodynamic analysis of simple substances and their compounds has shown that the invariant of the Tunguska Event could prove to be an energy emanation of a localized area of terrestrial space informational energy as a result of occurring fluctu ations. In this case the high initial potentiality could be explained not only by mechanical or electromagnetic processes, but also by a shift that occurred in the informational sphere of the planet. This shift could result both from natural and man- generated processes, caused by upsetting the informational and energy balance. Thus, the Tunguska Event could be identified with a global manifestation of the poltergeist phenomenon in the terrestrial space.


M. Di Martino, Turin Astronomical Observatory, I-10025 Pino Torinese (TO), Italy. G. Longo, INFN and University Physics Department, via Irnerio 46, I-40126 Bologna, Italy.

The Physics Department of the Bologna University, together with researchers of the CNR Institute of Marine Geology (Bologna) and of the Turin Astronomical Observatory, is organising a two week scientific expedition to Tunguska (Central Siberia). Local su pport will be provided by personnel and researchers of Tomsk University (Russia), leaded by the Academician N.V. Vasilyev and Prof. G.V. Andreev. About 25 persons will participate to the expedition planned for June-July 1999. A Hercules C-130 of the Ital ian Air Force will be provided to transport the expedition from Bologna to Bratsk (or Vanavara). For the last part of the trip, a helicopter will be requested of the Russian Military Aviation. The more representative events of the expedition will be film ed, in order to realise a movie to be distributed to the main TV networks in the world. This will make it possible to obtain free from private firms almost all the necessary devices and apparatus. The expedition will carry out a systematic exploration around the site (101░ 53' 40'' E; 60░ 53' 09'' N) of the so-called Tunguska event. The main goal is to assess the real nature of the body that on June 30, 1908 devastated about 2,000 km▓ of Siberian taiga felling more than 60 million of trees. Following the eyewitnessТs testimony, a cosmic fireball sailed over about 1000 km of Siberian territory leaving a trail of light and smoke some 800 km long. Subsequent research showed that the Tunguska bolide exploded at an altitude of about 8 km emitting an energy equivalent to 10-50 Megatons of TNT. No macroscopic remnants of the body, neither the typical signature of an impact, like a crater, have been found by the expeditions that previously visited the r egion. Nevertheless, it is the most devastating cosmic body known to strike Earth in historic times. On July 1996, in Bologna, an international conference, attended by about 100 scientists (astronomers, physicists, chemists, biologists, geologists, etc.), discussed the various aspects of the event (see abstracts on the Web page: /tunguska/abs/abstr3.html). Many questions are still open and an well-organised expedition with precise tasks will help to give an answer about the nature and composition of the Tunguska Cosmic Body. This will be a valuable contribution to the internatio nal programs on the detection and physical study of asteroids and comets potentially dangerous to humankind. The fundamental tasks of the лTunguska99╗ expedition are essentially four: To study the sediments on the bottom of Ceko lake (47 m deep). These lacustrine sediments could have preserved microparticles coming from the disintegration of the cosmic body. The collected samples will be subsequently analyzed in the Bologna and Turin laboratories. To carry out magnetometric measurements, and radar and photographic aerial observations of the central part of the devastated region. To search for cosmic body fragments which could have fallen before the explosion. To monitor the environmental radiation both during the flight Bologna-Tunguska-Bologna and during the two week stay in the Tunguska Natural Reserve; to compare it with similar measurements performed by the Bologna group in Italy, in Antarctica, in the Ev erest valley (5000 m) and along the entire sea trip Ravenna-Antarctica-Ravenna. Further information on the expedition at the Web site:


E.V. Dmitriev

Design Bureau лSalyut╗, The M.V.Khrunichev State Space Science - Production Center, Novozavodskaya St., 18, Moscow, 121087, Russia

On the basis of the hypothesis being developed by the author on tectite delivery by comet onto the Earth [1] and on the basis of analysis of the results received after investigations in the area of Tunguska catastrophe in the period of 1927 - 1977 the h ypothesis is advanced on eruptive origin of Tunguska meteorite and of all the complex of Enke comet, out of which according to [2] Tunguska meteorite had fallen. It is proved that the refractory component of Tunguska meteorite should have acid and mid-acid composition and practically should have no differences compared to the EarthТs sedimentary and igneous rock. Such an approach allows us to explain the absence of meteorite substance found in the vicinity of the catastrope. For checking up the hypothesis we offer лTectite╗ program, worked out by the author. References: [1] Dmitriev E.V. Appearing tectites on the Earth//Priroda,1998, N4, p.17 - 25. [2] Zotkin I.T. Anomalous twilight, connected with Tunguska meteorite// Meteoritika , 1969, issue 29, p.171


I.K. Doroshin

In the 1969-1997s the field search in the Tunguska meteorite fall area peat for Tunguska Meteorite matter was carried out. About 1500 samples of peat were selected and analized. A number of peat samples in the layer presumably dated as 1908 layers we dis covered particles that had a different structure from those typical for the spray fell out of technogenous and cosmic origin. The location of the samples in question tend to be concentrated to the north of the trajectory projection at distances of up to 50 kilometers. The techniques used to select samples did not include each peat column dating which has lead to a difficulty in interpretation of the results obtained. Besides, during sample processing the artifact spherule were let to form, which distorted the backgrou nd figures for the cosmic matter fall out. A new program of microdispersed matter search is suggested, that is based on a modified technique for selection of samples and their processing. It is supposed to first search for the cosmic matter in the areas where the fall out of micromatter occurred due to the meteorite fragments reaching the ground. The field works will also be carried out in the areas with suspicious particles in the peat s amples selected in the 1969-80-s.


V.A. Yermolaev, M.A.Shustov

Tomsk Polytechnical University, 634034, Tomsk. 30, Lenin Prospect, Russia

Disintegration of meteor body at the moment of its penetration into the upper strata of the atmosphere is accompanied by conversion of the solid body making up the meteor into a mixture of gases and dust. In the process of successive transitions, a solid (macro volume) Ц steam - a solid ( micro-volume, ultra-dispersed state) there is a regrouping of structural-phasal and componental composition of matter, its self-purification. It is known that ultra-dispersed dust particles selectively accumulate on the surface of an object. This process was termed лdecorating╗ [1]. The method of decorating (radiographic decorating) [1,2] is usually used to reveal surface defects in structural materials of limited area. Selective deposition of dust particles or steam condensation takes place at the division boundaries, on the charged sections of the surface, on crystal edges etc. The natural process of deposition on the surface of the earth gas and dust cloud forming du ring complete or partial disintegration of a meteor, is accompanied by similar processes that take place on a macro scale. Keeping to the method of analogy and scale similarity, it can be expected that distribution of dustЦlike particles and elements inv olved in it , will correspond not only to the direction of meteor penetration into the atmosphere, but also to the individual peculiarities Of landscape (relief, presence of locally manifested heterogeneity of physical fields etc.). Proceeding from the above, the following conclusions can be drawn: Analysing diagrams of dispersion of elements in the composition of the meteor, one should take into account the specific features of the region as the object of decorating. The area analysis to determine the distribution of dust-{or meteor-}originated micro-components can provide information not so much on the meteor, as on the characteristic features of the underlying surface. Carrying out layer and area distribution and correlation of elements in the soil, the investigator should standardize data attributed to the epoch being determined , in accordance with the element correlation and distribution characteristic of other temp oral epochs. References: Yermolaev V.A., Pokholkov Yu.P., Shustov M.A., Ismailova O.L., Azikova G.I., Rudnev S.V. Radiography and radiographic cells. Ц Tomsk: RIO Publishers, лPress-Integral╗ CPK ZHK, 1997.-224pp. Yermolaev V.A., Shustov M.A. Crystallo-textural radiographic registration of local heterogeneity of physical fields//IV All-Russia conf. on modification of properties of structural materials by means of charged particles pencils: - Abstracts. Ц May, 13-1 7,1996, - Tomsk:NII YF, 1996.-pp 514-516.


I. P. Zherebchenko

ASRIGeophysics, 22 Pocrovka, Moscow, Russia

On the basis of the numeric data of the map of the complete magnetic field HT of the USSR circular regional magnetic anomalies with diameters of the first thousands of kilometres and corresponding to them circular mega-structures or geocons have been dis covered. The symmetry peculiarities of one of them - the Volga geocon - allowed to assume that there is a triangular-net distribution of the centres of circular dislocations with a step of 1800 km. Moreover the Volga and the Tunguska geocons are the nucl ei of the Russian and Siberian pre-Cambrian platforms which can be inscribed in adjacent hexagons composed of cells of the triangular net, while the Hercynian Kazakh-Tien Shan geocon is inseribed in the hexagon the cenre of which is in the southern end o f the link separating the first two hexagones. The outlines of the Tunguska hexagon are seen in regional magnetic anomalies, Mocho isohypses and in the hidronet - the latter pointing at the newest activization of this part of the lithosphere. The Tunguska geocon is unique by the seale of its outward influence: the Kanin-Balkhash and Kursk-Aral arcs of the regional anomalies circumscribed its centre with the radii of 2200 and 3600 km are fragments of planetary lineaments of Eurasia which pass over Mongolia and China to Japan , the Kurils, Kamchatka and Chukotca. As a result there is a global circular structure commensurable with the Pacific Ocean fire ring. In accordance with such a concept it is possible to presume that the diamons of the Tu nguska geocon and the diamonds of the Kanin-Balckhash arc originate from one and the same mantle source, as well as the unique West-Siberian oil and gas deposits - giants controlled by the outer ring of the Tunguska geocon with the diameter of 2100 km. Inside the Tunguska geocon there is a unique trap province and a gigantic circular foundation structure with the diameter 1100 km connected with the former. In the north and the south the latter is complicated with daughter rings; its outer circle is emp hasized by narrow and deep troughs. The Tunguska syncline is the eastern sector of the outer trough ring of this structure and it gets into the epicentre of the gravitation maximum from solidity-heterogeneity of the upper mantle. The Tunguska event of 19 08 took place in the tectonically active south-eastern sector of the outer through ring mentioned above. In the vicinity of the centre of the Tunguska hexagon in the links of the triangular net there are two centres of: the Tunguska geocon, the Asian world geomagnetic maximum, the unique Chadobets circular structure, as well as of the characteristic isometr ic magnetic anomaly of the Vorotilov type which got directly into the Nyurendin gas-oil deposit to the south of Vanavara. It should be pointed out that the Vorotilov anomaly itself and the unique structure of the same name are situated in the centre of t he Volga hexagon. The epicentre of the Tunguska explosion is 70 km to the south-east of the centre of the Tunguska hexagon, in the northern ring of the circles of the Vanavara group belonging to the local circular structures singled out according to the magnetic data.


V. K. Zhuravlyev

Institution of Oil and Gas Geology of the SD of the RAS Novosibirsk-90, 3 Acad. Koptyug Str.

The story of finding magnetogrammes which detected an unusual perturbation in the magnetosphere after the explosion of the Tunguska cosmic body is related in the paper. The new trace of the Tunguska phenomenon has been interpreted as a geomagnetic storm of an unusually short lenght (about 5 hours). There has been determinated a regional character of the effect and its similarity with artificial magnetic storms caused by night-altitude explosions of thermonuclear bombs has been discovered. A. P. Kazantse vТs hypothesis of the technogenic origin of the Tunguska explosion has thus received one more effective confirmation.Quantitative characteristics of the geomagnetic perturbation of the 30th of June 1908 are presented and a concise description of theoreti cal schemes explaining physical reasons and the mechanism of the effect by various authors is given. General scientific importance of proving the fact that the geomagnetic effect of the explosion of a dangerous cosmic object in 1908 had nothing to do wit h geomagnetic perturbations caused by ordinary meteors and at the same time had all the characteristic features of technogenic artificial magnetic storms judging by its kinetics is validated in the paper as well. This issue turned out to be absolutely un expected for geophysicists and it must be considered as an important scientific discovery of our century. This discovery has been made as a result of healthy competition among several groups of researchers studying the Tunguska phenomenon from different standpoints and suggesting various independent versions of explaining the magnetic trace (perturbation of the ionosphere by the shock-wave of the blast, formation of the bipolar current system over Irkutsk, an explosion of a plasmoid thrown away by the S un and identification of the Tunguska explosion with a technogenic nuclear explosion). The plasmoid model calculated within the framework of the heliophysical hypothesis by V. K. Zhuravlyev and A. N. Dmitriev demanded the magnetic field values to hold th e plasm amounting to almost 16 Tl. Magnetic fields of this kind have not been discovered in the Sun. In the Solar System they are known only as a product of technogenic activity which also can be considered as a hint at technogenic origin of the Tunguska bolide.In the paper there are also little known facts concerning the information about the observations by a Professor of Kiel University Dr. Weber, who on the eve of the Tunguska explosion for three days detected periodic perturbations of the geomagnet ic field. This information was discovered by G. F. Plekhanov and N. V. Vasilyev. The beginning of this лmagnetic herald╗ almost coincided with the start of optico-atmospheric anomalies in Europe and its finish occured 16 minutes after the explosion of th e Tunguska cosmic body in Siberia. G. F. Plekhanov expressed an opinion that the regularity of geomagnetic fluctuations registered in Kiev can explained by the movement along a rather high orbit of a satellite of the Earth. The satellite was the source o f the regular signal. Thus, the opinion that the technogenic hypothesis about the nature of the Tunguska object, whose flight ended with the 30-megatons explosion of high energy concentration has no factual basis, is wrong. A more correct way of putting it would be: the infor mation preserved is not sufficient for indisputable confirmation of this hypothesis.


S.V. Zyryanov, Ecological Expedition, Russia, 660049, 9, Perensona St., Krasnoyarsk,.

The лTungusky╗ State Reserve is an accomplished fact of the uphill process of improving the condition of EarthТs ecology. It is but natural that the explored natural resources in Evenkia, so rich in mineral resources, will be developed in the XXI century , attracting trans-national mining and oil companies. Along with the benefits, intensive mining and extraction will bring destruction to the unique, virgin nature of the taiga Evenk territory, the heart of the Siberian taiga. The unique Tunguska meteorite phenomenon that had had left traces of catastrophe in the area between the rivers Kimchu and Hushmo in the historical period is a road to cognition of the origin of life on Earth and in the Universe. For future investigation s of these problems it is important to know the comparative characteristics of different areas of Evenkia, which must also be protected from anthropo- and technogenic pollution. Preservation of the priceless culture of the Evenk and other northern ethnic groups, their way of life and art, that the well-known Siberian ethnographer I.M.Suslov insisted on, is another problem that the лTunguska╗ Reserve is trying to solve. The half- way policy with regard to nature reservation is conditioned only by the natural landscape and the meteorite scientific orientation of the лTunguska╗ Natural Reserve. The establishment on the territory of Evenkia of the fifth National Park of Russia, and on the suggestion of the Ecological Expedition of the first cosmonauts from four countries Ц Park Number 1 of the planet Earth, will serve to promote the internationa l process of financing the ecological safety on our planet.


G. A. Ivanov

Krasnoyarsk, Russia

Contradictions of the Tunguska problem: A great number of the presumed trajectories of the flight over the Earth while not a single one of the suggested trajectories can be physically realized. The supposed velocity of flying into the atmosphere of the Earth is incommensurable with the velocity calculated on the basis of the forest fall characteristics. Not a sigle trajectory can serve as a basis for explaining the abnormal luminescence of the night sky over Eurasia. There are not even attempts to explain the meteorological effects observed by witnesses during the flight of the comet. The author suggests a new flight trajectory of the Tunguska comet over the Earth and showes that such a trajectory puts an end to all the contradictions and gives a complete explanation to the phenomenon that happened on the 30th of June, 1908. Over the planet there was a meteorite shower, particularly over the vast space of the Northen Atlantic which was covered with the clouds of a powerful cyclone spreading as far as the banks of the Ob river. From the Yenisei to the Baikal and to the Stony Tunguska a cosmic ice-fall was observed. It was this ice-fall that caused the meteorological phenomena mentioned above.


S. I. Ipatov

The M.V.Keldysh Institute for Applied Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miusskaya Square 4, Moscow, 125047, Russia, The main sources of the family of the objects coming nearer to the Earth are considered to be asteroid and transneptune zones. If theTunguska phenomenon was caused by an ice body, then such a body, probably, came out of the transneptune zone (Ageverse-Co yper zone) or out of Oort cloud. It is considered that in this zone in a distance of 30 - 50 astronomical units from the Sun there are nearly 70 thousand objects with the diameter of d>100 km and 1010 bodies with d>1 km in this zone, the distance from th e Sun is 30 - 50. PN bodies from Ageverse-Coyper zone were crossing Neptune orbit and then leaving the zone under the influence of giant planets during the last 4 milliard years. According to [1] these PN bodies share is 0.1 - 0.2. As orbits of transnept une bodies are being changed also under the influence of other bodies from the zone, we assume below PN = 0.2. In [1] we get as 0.34 the PNJ probability that after some period of time these bodies which had left the zone started to cross Jupiter orbit. W e examined evolution of the orbits initially crossing Jupiter orbit (there were 48 orbits studied, all of them were near the orbit of the object P/1996 R2 (Lagerkwist)). The research had shown that the share of PJE orbits is 0.2. Their perigees in the ca use of evolution for some period of time tE were less than 1 astronomical units. In some variants of calculations tE meanings exceeded 20 thousand years, in other ones they were less than 1 thousand. We estimated average tE meaning as 5 thousand years. T aking into account that typical time until the collision of the Earth and the object crossing its orbit (OCEO) is (3/4) . 107 years [2], we receive probability PE of its colliding the Earth within the range of 7 thousand years as 7 . 10-5. The probabilit y of the case when a body crossing the Neptune orbit would reach the Earth orbit is PNE = PNJ . PJE = 0.34 . 0.2 ~ 0.07. That is why the probability of colliding with the Earth is PC = PNE . PE = 5 . 10-6. Taking into account the estimations of the numbe r of objects in transneptune zone (TNZ) given above, while PN = 0.2, we receive the probability for some object to fall out onto the Earth as in the 0.07 scale and typical time T between falling out bodies with the diameter d>1 km from TNZ onto the Earth is 4 . 105 years. We are speaking about the object with the diameter more than 100 km and about the time period of 4 milliard years. If the number of bodies d>d0 is in proportion to do-2 then the probability for the body d>10 km to fall out onto the Ear th is 100 times more, than for the body d>100 km. The T for the body d>60 m is 280 less than for the body d>1 km. It is considered that the total number for OCEO d>1km is 750 (500 - 1000). From the estimations given above we can get that nearly 170 such OCEO (that is nearly 20%) initially were moving into TNZ along the orbits with larger semi-axes a from 30 to 50 astronomic units. The Actual share of bodies migrating to the Earth from the zone a~30-50 astronomic units can differ several times from the e stimations given above and besides, it can depend on d. Nevertheless for bodies with the size of Tunguska object (d~60 - 70 m), as well as for 1 km bodies, coming nearer or colliding with the Earth, the share of bodies coming from this zone is 0.2. Besid es bodies moving along highly eccentric orbits c a>50 astronomical units can migrate to the Earth. Believing that the average time, during which bodies cross the Jupiter orbit, is 0.2 million years, we get the number of bodies d>1 km, having come from TN Z and crossing the Jupiter orbit, as 3 . 104. The present work was fulfilled under the financial support from Russian Fund for Fundamental Research (grant 96-02-17892) and Federal Scientific-Technical Program лAstronomy╗ (Item [1] Duncan M.J., Levinson H.F., and Budd S.M., 1995, Astronomy Review J., v.110, 3073-3081. [2] Ipatov S.I., 1995, Astronomy Review, v.29, 304,330


E. R. Kazankova

Oil and Gas Institute of Rus. Acad. of Sci. 11726, Moscow, 63/2 Leninsky prospect, Russia

Self-organization in the value that characterizes directly the mode of transition from the simple to the more complicated consists of natural spasmodic processes that convert an open system without equilibrium, that has reached in its developments critic al condition , into a new condition. According to the modern conception, the Earth, a self-gravitating body, participating in the complicated motion in space, interacting with other cosmic bodies, is rotating from west to east at a certain angular velocity. When the progressive mass displac ement does not coincide with the rotation, an interaction of solid, liquid and gaseous masses of the Earth occurs, which results in the emergence of different level and different scale spacio-temporal structures that comprise segments inserted into each other, corresponding to the ranging of geological medium into blocks, in accordance with its strain-deformed condition. Orderliness and dynamo-kinematics of these structures are the result of the spiral-like twisting movement of the Earth, which is, according to the definition of N.N.Sigacheva (1992), a universal mechanism of self-organisation of geological space (in plan etsТ atmospheres, oceans and plasma), that functions at different depths and predetermines the development of geo-dynamic processes of different magnitude and an indissoluble system of tension fields. It is obvious that bodies of similar configuration ar e created in force fields of the same type at any point on the globe. A systematic analysis of the present day geo-dynamic condition of the geological medium of the Kaluzhskays circular structure has shown that the structure is situated in the central part of the Kaluzhsko-Belski dislocations zone, extending in a line alon g the tension split, the dislocations ,stretching from north-west to south-east at an angle of 45 degrees to the meridian. The structure is situated in space, with the vectors of the main tensions from the height of 120kms and from the depth of 180kms ac ting on it. The most unstable sections are located along the maximal and minimal tension vectors. The south-eastern part of the main maximal tension vector, beginning with the middle Devonian has changed its direction at least twice. The three break away cracks testify to that. Under these conditions, the main middle tension wave wound up as a spiral ( twisting of the rock masses was accompanied by their breaking away along the southern section of the plane of symmetry at 25-30 degrees). The tension field structure of the Kaluzhskaya circular /ring structure could be used as a model for a possible interpretation of the Tunguska Event from the viewpoint of modern geo-dynamics.


G. F. Karpunin, V. M. Chernikov

Novosibirsk, Russia

The first expeditions to the area of the Tunguska meteorite impact brought not only scientific results, but also influenced the creation of documentary essays, popular articles, poems, documentaries, devoted to this phenomenon (L. Kulik, A. Bagritskyi, P . Dravert, later A. Kazantzev and the others). Starting from the 1950Тs the literature of this kind is supplemented by the books, written by the participants of the IIE (KSE in the Russian transliteration): Following the Tunguska catastrophe tracks by N. Vasiliev, D. Diomin, G. Plekhanov and others), Tunguska Wonder. Meteorite or a Space ship? by A. Erokhovetzs, Following Kulik by B. VronskyiТs (3 editions), Yu. KandybaТs In the Land of the Fiery God Ogdy, and In search of the Fiery Stone by I. Yevgenie v and L. Kuznetzova. The fantastic novels written by A. Kazantzev, brothers A. and B. Struganskyi and the poems by S. Kirsanov are being published. The latest publishings belong to V. Juravlev and F. Zigel Tunguska wonder, poetic collection Sinilga, scie nce- fiction magazine Tunguskiy Vestnik (Bulletin) of IIE╗ (editor in chief G. F. Plehanov). These editions make for the success of keeping up interest for the problems of Tunguska metorite research and cover itТs scientific and moral- ethics aspects. IIE Ц л is the only one in the country informal voluntary organization which didnТt bet ray itТs programme, in spite of the repeated changes in the social and political system. It doesnТt know reforms and changes, membership cards and quarterly accounts... itТs been existing for 40 years in the name of Tunguska meteorite (D. Dyomin). What adds to the stability of the IIE? The global goal. A generally interesting and significant object, such as Tunguska meteorite has been chosen to use the labor and intellectual potential. The actuality of itТs studying can only increase in the course of time. Interdisciplinary approach, which determines a unique combination of individuals, participating in the IIE, speccialists in various fields. A possibility of self-realization: лit doesnТt matter whether you are a professor or a half- educated student, your idea being perspective and interesting enough is what counts╗ (G. Plehanov). High intellectual potential of IIE leaders. Communicating with the specialists rises the expedition participants level and joins the young people on the serious scientific work. Democratic way in organizing field -works and laboratory works. Free exchange of ideas and opinions in any questions. Exotic region of exploration. лAmong the swamps and rivers-here IТm a man.╗ (V. Chernikov). Traditions. Attention given to everybody. General meetings (May, November). Manuscript лKurumnic╗, as a special culture occurrence still waiting to be explored. Folklore: prose, poems, songs, drawings. Mythology: Ogdy, Komandor (Commandor), Tropa (The Path), Synyaya noga (The Blue Foot), Yog, Zaimka (KulikТs Lodge), Kulik, Liuchetkan, Zvezdolyot (A space vehicle), Mt. Farrington, Sinilga. Public and scientific recognition of IIE, international recognition of the IIEТs authority.


E.M.Kolesnikov1, A.I.Stepanov2, E.A.Goridko1

1Geological Faculty, Moscow State University, 119899, Moscow, Russia 2Institute for Common and Non-Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117907 Moscow, Russia.

We have studied layer distribution of 29 chemical element concentrations in acid washouts from peat in the vicinity of the Tunguska Cosmic Body (TCB) explosion. A Mass spectrometer with inductively connected plasma (ICP-MS) was used for the survey. Earli er anomalies were found in isotope content H, C and N in this peat-bog [1,2]; more likely they were caused by the presence of TCB substance. It was also marked that processing peat with acids leads mainly to the transition of TCB substance into solution [1]. Marked isotope effects took place only in лcircum-catastrophe╗ peat layers, including 1908 year increment, and they were absent in upper layers and in layers under permafrost melting border as per June 1908 [2]. In the present work we revealed within the same depth limits of the peat, its enrichment as compared to upper and lower layers of a column with the main chemical elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, and also Co, and Ni) as well as with the additive e lements (Sc, Sr, Pd, U, Th). Especially sharp increase was marked in the share of alkaline elements (Li, Na, Rb, Cs) and in a number of other volatiles (Cu, Zn, Ga, Br, Ag, Sn, Sb, Pb, Bi). The highest concentration Natrium has (up to 9.7%) which correla tes with large concentration of this element, measured in two groups of silicate balls from peat ash (2.5% and 2.8%) [3] and in 3 large balls (average 9.2%) [4]. The composition of highly concentrated elements in peat, except balls, in the work [3], in c ommon corresponds to particle composition in tree resin [5], as well as to anomalous elements in peat ash in the work [6]. Existing divergences with [5] and [6] are caused, more likely, by different analyzing techniques. With [6] - also by the absence in our work peat burning process, which leads to partial loss of many volatile constituents. The effects found in peat couldnТt be generated by fall-out of telluric (trappean) dust. Really, as compared to traps in the substance preserved in peat as related to Si the content of other main elements is sharply decreased : Mg, Al, Ca, Ti and Fe. At the same time relationships of contents Mg/Al and Ni/Fe are considerably increased. Besides, the relationships of involatile lithophilous constituents Ca/Al/Ti differ greatly from trap ones. Repeated enrichment with some volatiles (Na, Br, Rb, Ag, Sn, an d Pb) had been found as well. The assumed TCB substance preserved in peat turned out to have lack of Fe and other siderophile elements as compared to common meteorites. At the same time even if compared to coaly chondrates CI and CM the substance was enriched with many volatile subsc tances, which points at its comet source [7]. References: [1] Kolesnikov E.M., Birtger T., Kolesnikova N.V. DAN, 1995, V.343, N5, p.649 - 672. [2] Kolesnikov E.M., Birtger T. and others. DAN, 1996, V.347, N3, p.378 - 382. [3] Kolesnikov E.M., Lyul A.Y., Ivanova G.M., Astronomy Review, 1977, V.11, N4, p.209 - 218. [4] Dolgov Y.A., Vasilyev N.V. and others, Meteritics, 1973, Issue 32, p.147 - 149. [5] Longo G., Serra R. et al, Planet. Space Science, 1994, v.42, N2, p.163 - 177. [6] Golenetzkiy S.P., Stepanok V.V., Kolesnikov E.M., Geochemistry, 1977, N.11, p.1635 - 1645. [7] Kolesnikov E.M., in the book лInteraction between Meterite Substance and the Earth╗, лNauka╗, Novosibirsk, 1980, p.87 - 102.


E. M. Kolesnikov, T. Boettger, N.V.Kolesnikova

1Faculty of Geology, Moscow State University, 119899 Moscow 2Institute of Geophysics and Geology of Leipzig University, 04103, Leipzig, Germany 3Faculty of Biology, Moscow State University, 198899 Moscow

The Tunguska Cosmic Body (TCB) was most likely close to a small comet in nature, being characterised as a лdirty╗ snow ball made up for the most part of a volatile combination of H, C, O, N, S and other light elements. However, these same elements are pr esent in large quantities in soil and vegetation and therefore the search for comet matter on the ground poses great dificulties. Present in comet cores are submicron dust particles making up only a small part of their entire mass. These are extremely sm all (on average about 0,5 microns) and therefore they are very difficult to distinguish from soil and peat. We proposed to prove the existence of comet matter on the ground by the change in the isotopic makeup of light elements and discovered isotopic shift in H and C in the лcatastrophe╗layer of peat from the epicentre of the explosion. [1] Subsequently, this method allowed the revelation of two more areas in the explosion zone, concentrations of TCB matter, which are extremely dissimilar to those that ooccur naturaly in the area.[2] Shifts in the isotopic makeup of carbon (dC to +4,3 0/00 ) and hydrogen (dD to - 22 0/00) are contrary by sign and could not be provoked by normal causes such as: the occurence of mineral and organic dusts and soots from fires, the humefication of peat, emmision fr om the earth of hydrocarbon gasses, climatic changes and other physico-chemical causes. Above all, the isotopic effects are clear when attached tothe place and time of the explosion of the TCB and they exist in the upper as well as the very lowest layers of peat, within the borders of the extent of permafrost in 1908, and also in control columns of peat from different areas.[2].There is a correlation [3,4] between isotopic effects and an increased concentration in the peat of Ir, which is an indicator t he prescence of cosmic matter. The difference in the isotopic makeup of Pb from that of ordinary lead in the catastrophy region confirms its extraterrestrial origin.[5] The discovery of isotopic anomalies cannot explain the conservation in the peat of ordinary chondrites and achondrites. More likely is the precipitation of matter of the least changed carbon chondrites CI and CM, but their calculated [2] isotopic shifts, and C, is too great, so the addition of comet carbon to the peat is even more probable. Isotopic analysis of N in the peat [2,6] is testimony to the prevalent acid rain in the region which enabled the fallout of airsprays at the time of the explosion.Th e highly volatile makeup of the precipitant matter from the TCB [7] also points with great likelihood to its comet origins. Literature [1] Kolesnikov, E.M. DAN USSR, 1982, t.226, v4, p 993 Ц 995 [2] Kolesnikov E.M. Boettger T. et al., Isotopes Environ. Health Stud., 1996, v.32 , N4, p.347-361 [3] Nazarov, M.A., Korina M I. et al., Geochemistry, 1990, v5 p.627-689 [4] Hou Q., Ma P.X., Kolesnikov E.M., Planet Space Sci, 1998 (in press) [5] Kolesnikov E.M., Shestakov G.N., Geochemistry, 1997, v8 p.1202- 1211 [6] Kolesnikov E.M., Kolesnikova N.V., Boettger T., Planet Space Sci., 1996 лTunguska Special Issue╗ [7] Kolesnikov E.M., Stepanov, A.I., Goridko E. A., Tez. Dokl. International Scientific Conference л90 Years of Tunguska Investigations╗


O.Krasavchikov, V.K.Zhuravlyov

Institute of Oil and Gas Geology, Siberian Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Academician Koptyuga prospect, 3, Novosibirsk, Russia

The works on biolocation of the Tunguska explosion territory are being held from 1983 along with geochemical research. In the first stage they were aimed at seeking for biolocation anomalies (BLA) which could be considerably different (by frame behaviour ) from лstandard╗ natural BLA and could be near-surface (soil and first meters of day surface). The reason for formulating the task in this way was the existence of characteristics for comparisons of different natural BLA stored during a range of years o n the territory of Siberia. For rough estimation of the disturbing body depth (or agent) we implemented the technique by N.N.Sochevanov and co-authors. While carrying out field works it was revealed that practically in every case estimated depth exceeded 100 m, and only in single cases the depth effect was absent at all (which means near-surface localization of disturbing body or agent). BLA with sound depth effect and estimated depth below 100 m were not revealed, that is, the objects were distinctly d ivided into two classes. For the task which was under solution only one of these classes is interesting - BLA which do not provide depth effect. For them the depth was estimated according to other technique (we produced soil cross-section and took soil p atterns by layers as experiment standards - лresonators╗) Among soil BLA we found лnon-standard╗ ones in the mentioned-above sense. In 1983 - 1986 two of such BLA were found: North-Western in the district of the mountain Ostraya and South-Eastern. The fi rst one has cross-sections as approximately 2.5 - 1.5 km , the second - approximately 0.7 - 0.3. Special point of radial fall-out of wood according to V.G.Fast and these two anomalies are located practically along one line, which represents one of the as sumed variants (by general agereement) of the Tunguska cosmic body flight trajectory. North-Western anomaly concerned ytterbium anomaly defined by D.V.Dyomin and V.K.Zhuravlyov (1976) (and with the district of possible fall out of the substance according to D.F.Anfinogenov). Both non-standard BLA are characterized by similar frame behavior and coincidence in lists of standards (resonators) active in these anomalies. To these belong the standards identifying ytterbium, barium, strontium, tantalum, iridiu m. For some of the listed elements (in particular, for ytterbium) there are the results of equipment measurements of soil samples which conform with the results of the biolocation survey. A Highly active standard in these anomalies is also graphite. Amon g cosmogenic objects (meteorite samples) only carbon chondrite samples (for example, Migeas) turned out to be active. Very often, surviving parts of tree bodies are rather active standards, we mean those trees killed as a result of Tunguska catastrophe, 1908. According to our data, many such trees are biolocational anomalies approximately of the same type as two mentioned above soil anomalies. Up to the present moment near the South-Eastern anomaly there were revealed two more small anomalies of the sam e type as North-Western and South- Eastern. Soil samples taken from the layers arising in North-Western and South- Eastern anomalies were divided into thin and rough fractions by floatation which were tested as standards (лresonators╗) in the same anomal ies. In every case only thin fraction specimens were active.


P.F. Coleman

Department of Chemical and process Engineering, University of Canterbury, Cristchurch, New Zealand

The June 30th 1908 Tunguska лMeteor╗ is identified not as a bolid fireball, but as a vortex fireball. The vortex fireball has been proposed as a basis for a theory of ball lightning. This alternative explanation seems to account for irregular fireball tr ajectory, tectonic activity and continued the existence of the object after the explosive wave. References: Coleman P.F. An explanation for ball lightning? Ц Weather, V.48, No.1, 1993, p.31 Coleman P.F. Vortex break down burner hypothesis of ball lightning. Ц In the book лProceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Ball Lightning. 26-29 August 1997, Tsugawa Town, Niigata, Japan Ц 1997, pp. 176-182.



IGEM, Rus. Acad. of Sci., 109017 Moscow, Staromonetnyi per., 35 Russia

An unbiased interpretation of eyewitness reports of the Event points to a far from cosmic velocity of the flight along a gently sloping trajectory of a luminous body the size of the disk of the sun or more. It was seen to the east and south from the plac e of explosion (or several explosions) in the region of the Podkamennaya Tunguska River. The first report, immediately after the event, told of a ball lightning. This phenomenon is well known to the inhabitants of this Siberian region, cases of atmospher ic luminosity and fire-balls being familiar occurrences. But they could be impressed by the size of the fire-ball and the power of the explosion. The well-known consequences of the explosion correlate with the conception of its plasmo-electric character. But where could this huge ball come from? Its size must have been no less than 100 m, judging from the explosion energy and the known energy in the densities of globe-lightnings. There is reliable data on the dimensions to the first metres. In the areas of earth crust fissures, during earthquakes and volcano eruptions such luminous bodies have repeatedly appeared. The uniqueness of the Tunguska Event correlates with the geo-tectonic location of the region which is situated within the unique Tunguska sineclease in which great masses of Perm-Trias basalts originating from the mantle have accumulated. This testifies to the great permeability of the crust of the Earth, crushed by the deep fissures, which is obvious from the morpho-tectonic location of the region. It happens to be on a planetary-scale crust and lithosphere flexure at the point of the transition of a d ipping crust sector in the north and west (the Eurasian sector) into the rising one in the south and east (the Asian sector). The gigantic flexure stretching NE, being a part of a large circle, marked by major basalt effusions of different ages, runs fro m the south of Africa to Chukotka and is clearly seen in the relief of the planet and in the planetary geo-physical fields. The corresponding wide zone of rock crumpling and cleavage is highly seismic. The earth crust shifts and the friction thus created are a source of accumulation of large amount of EarthТs electricity charge, that can either dicharge gradually or in immence outbursts. It is of interest that the Hrapp Culture (III millenia BC) in the north west of India had once existed in such a zone. The excavation site provide evidence for a sudden death of people in massive fires. The Mahabharata quotes an лexplosion╗ that caused л blinding fire, the fire without smoke╗. This anomalous in geological and geophysical sence huge tectonic лscar╗ probaly can generate rare catastrophe events. The event in the Dream bog on the Moon may probably be referred to this class of events, it was registered in 1985 by the oservarers from the Earth.


V.O.Krasavchikov, V.K.Zhuravlyov

Institute of Oil and Gas Geology, Siberian Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Academician Koptyuga prospect, 3, Novosibirsk, Russia

The works on biolocation of the Tunguska explosion territory are being held from 1983 along with geochemical research. On the first stage they were aimed at seeking for biolocation anomalies (BLA) which could be considerably different (by frame behaviour ) from лstandard╗ natural BLA and could be near-surface (soil and first meters of day surface). The reason for formulating the task in this way was the existence of characteristics for comparisons of different natural BLA stored during a range of years o n the territory of Siberia. For rough estimation of the disturbing body depth (or agent) we implemented the technique by N.N.Sochevanov and co-authors. While carrying out field works it was revealed that practically in every case estimating depth exceede d 100 m, and only in single cases the depth effect was absent at all (which means near-surface localization of disturbing body or agent). BLA with sound depth effect and estimated depth below 100 m were not revealed, that is the objects were distinctly d ivided into two classes. For the task which was under solution only one of these classes is interesting - BLA which do not provide depth effect. For them the depth was estimated according to other technique (we produced soil cross-section and took soil p atterns by layers as experiment standards - лresonators╗) Among soil BLA we found лnon-standard╗ ones in the mentioned-above sense. In 1983 - 1986 two of such BLA were found: North-Western in the district of the mountain Ostraya and South-Eastern. The fi rst one has cross-sections as approximately 2.5 - 1.5 km , the second - approximately 0.7 - 0.3. Special point of radial fall out of wood according to V.G.Fast and these two anomalies are located practically along one line, which represents one of the as sumed (by generally used notion) variants of the Tunguska space body flight trajectory. North-Western anomaly concerned ytterbium anomaly defined by D.V.Dyomin and V.K.Zhuravlyov (1976) (and with the district of possible fall out of the substance accord ing to D.F.Anfinogenov). Both non-standard BLA are characterized by similar frame behavior and coincidence in lists of standards (resonators) active in these anomalies. To them belong the standards identifying ytterbium, barium, strontium, tantalum, irid ium. For some of the listed elements (in particular, for ytterbium) there are the results of equipment measurements of soil samples which go in conformity with the results of biolocation survey. Highly active standard in these anomalies is also graphite. Among cosmogenic objects (meteorite samples) only coaly chondrates samples (for example, Migeas) turned out to be active. Very often survived parts of tree bodies are rather active standards, we mean those trees died in the result of Tunguska catastrop he, 1908 (after experts conclusion). According to our data, many of such trees are biolocational anomalies approximately of the same type as two mentioned above soil anomalies. Up to the present moment near South-Eastern anomaly there were revealed two m ore small anomalies of the same type as North-Western and South- Eastern. Soil samples taken from the layers arousing North-Western and South- Eastern anomalies were divided into thin and rough fractions by floatation which were tested as standards (лres onators╗) in the same anomalies. In all the cases only thin fraction specimens were active.


F. B. Kronikovsky

Krasnoarmeisky district Public Organisation ,the ecogroup лTaiga╗, Primorsky krai, Krasnoarmeisky raion, Roshchino

The assessment of the state of the environment, discovery of centres of ecological catastrophes and the means of their prevention Ц all this presents one of the most urgent problems of today. Apparently, in the nearest future ecological problems will become determinative in all spheres of human activity, moving from the category of domestic to the category of international problems. The development of the computer informational network will make available a vast information on the state of the environment and will facilitate a prompt reaction on its changing. The ethic and spiritual readiness of the people to empathise with the prob lems of the environment and to harmonise their practical activity with it become of paramount importance. In this light, one of the main problems of the contemporary society is to discover unique territories with a high informational potential, capable of exerting a deeply emotional impact on an individual, involving him /her in the problems of the universe. To this category undoubtedly belong the area of the Tunguska catastrophe and the site of Sihote-Alinsky meteorite fall, taking into account their undeniable significance for the whole of humanity and unique value on world scale. The economic and legal confusion reigning in modern society promote plunder and destruction of unique natural heritage. One could cite numerous examples of how momentary mercantile interests and hasty conclusions resulted in destruction of invaluable inf ormational treasures of our history. There have been cases when pseudo-scientists peddle unique samples of meteoritic substance. An acute necessity has arisen to take all possible measures to regulate the activity of the numerous organisations dealing, directly or indirectly, with these problems in order to save the unique valuables of world significance. In 1972, the UNESCO General Conference adopted the ╗Convention on the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage╗. For its realisation an Intergovernmental Committee for the protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage, known as the лWorl d Heritage Committee╗ which compiles the лList of World Heritage╗, was set up. It is proposed to discuss, at one of the conference meetings, the question of forming a work group for the preparation of the appropriate documents to include the territories - the Tunguska catastrophe area and the site of the Sihote-Alin meteorite - in the лList of World Heritage╗.



The Tunguska Cosmic Phenomenon Siberian Fund

Over a number of years members of the Tunguska Cosmic Phenomenon Siberian Fund carried out a thorough analysis of the reports of eyewitnesses of the 1908 catastrophe. This lead to the supposition that on June 30, 1908 there had been several cosmic bodies лfalling╗ on the Earth. Moreover, some eyewitnesses assert that one body looked like a лtube╗ i.e. it was cylindrical and irradiated a white bluish light. Considering these reports on a larger scale, taking into account the surface investigations, we can contend that one of the bodies that had visited our Earth had indeed been of technogenic nature. Such a view on the problem clearly brings out the peculiarity of the trajectory of the Cosmic object (KO), its entry into the EarthТs atmosphere, its speed, braking, its interaction with the surface of the Earth. All this explains the luminosity of the n ight sky over the Euro-Asian continent from the Atlantic Ocean to the Yenisey and the peculiarities of its cause and effect. In the investigations of the immense /Siberian territory with the help of topographic maps, aero-photography and photographs from space in addition to field expeditions data have been obtained of megalithic imprints of the impact of KO on the EarthТs sur face with the characteristic strip-like damages. Spectral analysis of the soil, water and trees in this area revealed anomalous presence of a number of elements, including some of extra-terrestrial origin in all the media. Of special interest are the radiation and magnetometric parameters in the area of KO Ц Earth interaction. The results of the investigation need further detailed analysis and research. Tree cut cross sections from these areas testify to some unknown X-radiation from the KO that passed over the Earth in 1908. In the conclusion of the report, there is a preliminary generalization of the results of the investigation of the Event which support the technogenic hypothesis of the Cosmic object and, consequently, cosmic catastrophe as the cause of the Event in Centr al Siberia on June, 30, 1908. Moreover, it does not exclude the possibility of intelligent object acting on a natural cosmic body (a comet, asteroid) with the aim of fragmentation and destruction.



The Tunguska Cosmic Phenomenon Siberian Fund.

The computer selective analysis of the reports of eyewitnesses of the 1908 Cosmic catastrophe in Central Siberia has shown that the true trajectory of the flight and the interaction of the Cosmic object with the Earth are somewhat different from what the y are conceived to be at present. In the report the author integrates the eyewitness reports according to the regions, time and the direction of the moving body which helped to plot more precisely the trajectory of the cosmic visitor on the morning June 30, 1908. This, which is more impo rtant, accounts for the luminosity of the night sky over Europe and Asia from June 30 to July 2, 1908. Taking into account the peculiarities of the trajectory of the cosmic body, the planet surface in Central Siberia was investigated from the Yenisey to the Irkutsk Oblast with the help all the available means, including expedition landing parties in the t arget areas. The investigation revealed numerous damages of directed character such as long stretches of felled trees and destruction s of mountain formations. The results of the fieldwork in the area between the Angara and the Podkamennaya Tunguska, the area of the supposedly PRINCIPAL Cosmic body- Earth interaction, showed considerable anomalies of a number of chemical elements, some of which are of genuine c osmic origin. In one area an unknown field was discovered which produces a depressing effect on people. The cosmic hurricane can be dated by the cross sections of trees brought from these areas which confirm that the catastrophe took place in 1908, at the same time as near Vanavara. The report carries information about fused metallic and rock formation finds, discovered on the territory of Siberia by the FundТs expeditions. The finds could be of cosmic origin. But it is still uncertain if these fragments are in anyway involved with the Tunguska phenomenon. The sensation of the paper is the report of an eyewitness, a woman from Krasnoyarsk, of a fiery rock falling in the Krasnoyarsk area on the morning of June 30, 1908. In conclusion, the paper presents a summary of the results of the investigations of the Tunguska cosmic phenomenon by the members of the Fund over the last 5 years and conclusions about the problem are made.


E. N. Lind

KSRIG and MS, Krasnoyarsk

The task of the search for overmagnetized soils is connected with the solution of the general problem of the nature of the Tunguska cosmic phenomenon. Some hypotheses explain its nature as an electric-charge explosion. Of late, there have appeared some publications in which the presence of overmagnetized soils in several areas of the Tunguska catastrophe is stated. However, no factual materials are presented in the publications. The petrophysical laboratoryof the KSRI of Gand and MS, on the initiative of Academician N. V. Vasilyev, carried out studies of magnetization of 290 soil samples collected by the participants of expedition KSE-91 and KSE-92 from sites scattered within th e limits of 30x9 km. The major result of these studies is the conclusion about the absence of weighty arguments in favour of soil-overmagnitization in this region. It was found that the selection of oriented samples of soils and interpretation of the results are rather difficult to perform due to the fact that the samples can hardly be properly selected and preserved intact during their transportation and mesuring procedures. The doubts also arise from frequent hete rogeneity of the sampled material, the presence of big fragments of magmatic rock in it, and dubious character of sampled strata dating. It is the presence of big magmatic rock fragments that create the impression of overmagnetization of soils. High magn etization of samples containing such fragments and scattered nature of residual magnetization sectors distort the picture. In this connection new methods of search for overmagnetized rocks, namely, based on the study of fragments of magmatic rock of trap formations, which are abundant of the researched territory, are suggested. Even alluvial sedimentations are good for this. Trap formations with isothermal, normal magnetization occurring in the conditions of electromagnetic effect (for example, with a discharge of lightning) are characterized by 10-100-fold raised value. Such samples are easily determined immediately in th e field with the help of a compass. Having analysed the distribution of л anomalous╗ samples it is possible to outline the area of the presumed place of electromagnetic effects. And already after this, if it is necessary, one can select oriented samples of soils for further research. Productivity of such express territory-sorting is quite high and this approach does not require highly-qualified personnel or any specialized equipment except for a compass. Making use of these methods, though utilizing proton and quantum magnetometers big boulders of intrusive trap formations with a chaotic distribution of vectors of residual magnetization even within the limits of one boulder were found in the north of the Boguchanski District along the assumed trajectory of the Tunguska body, in a number of places on the shores of lakes with obscure genesis. The intensity of magnetization was very high with insignificant magnetic receptivity values which is quite charact eristic of isothermal magnetization. Usually such overmagnetized rocks are met only in the water-division areas. The selection of soil samples in the area has been temporally suspended due to the difficulties in financing the expedition which were organi zed by the public-state foundation лThe Tunguska Cosmic Phenomenon╗ (Krasnoyarsk, the Chairman of the Foundation - Yu. D. Lavbin).


A.P. Lopatin, L.M. Uskova, E.N. Gultyaev

State Center лNature╗, Krasnoyarsk Branch, Russia

The Krasnoyarsk Branch of the State Center лNature╗ has carried out for very many years out scientific research and cartographic works on the basis of deciphering space photography materials in the territory of Central Siberia. From the results of decip hering space photos we have revealed 8 objects, which have shape and inner structure hardly explicable from the position of their Earth origin. We can assume that their formation is the result of space bodies falling down. The outline of the objects is similar to tracks, produced on surfaces as a result of tangent impact, destruction, scattering or spraying some substance. Objects look like scratches or furrows of radial fragmentary shape. In their structure not rarely the location of main impact with the Earth can be defined with rather extensive trains of substance scattering. In space photos marked elements of object structures differ from other country with tone and color. Probably, it is connected with irregularity o f top-soil, soils and grounds as a result of impacts. In typical for Centrsl Siberia taiga country the revealed tracks usually are characterized by the presence of glades, lesser density forest, woods with developing bushes and half-grown trees. One of the most typical tracks was found in 1996 when laying an oil pipeline from Takhomo-Yurubchensk gas and oil deposit in the South of Evenkia to village Boguchany on the Anagara river. It is located 150 km from Boguchany on the river Kezhma riverhead in its watershed area with the river Kumonda. The track is stretched along azimuth 800 and it is observed within the distance of 30 km with a width of 4 km. The second analogous object had been found in the river Bolshoy Pit watershed with its right tri butary the river Lendaha, 16 km to the West from the village Bryanka. The spreading of the track is 1200, length 6 km, width 1.5 km. Four tracks located near one another are deciphered in the Eastern Sayan foothills in basin of the Tagul river, the Birusa left tributary. The length of tracks is from 5 to 21 km, the width up to 6 km. They are spread along 450 azimuth. All the marked tracks of body falling-down were found in mountainous or hilly land. At the same time the main impacts were made either against Western exposure side, or against tops of watersheds. On the way of substance scattering more evident destructi on was also marked on the western exposure sides or on tops. In flat country the same objects were met on left-bank side of the Yenisei river in the river Kasovskaya basin and in the river Chuna basin southward Vudrino village. The track stretching in the forst case is 1200, length 8 km, and for the second case 90 0 and 13 km. The tracks are worse preserved. Peculiarities of both orientation of disposition and structures of the revealed objects, stronger damages on Western exposure sides allow to assume that their formation is caused by tangent impacts against the Earth surface produced by series of space bo dies flying from West to the East. There is high probability that the impacts are connected by time and genetically with 1908-year phenomenon. At the same time on the ground which is marked on topographical maps as the place of Tunguska meteorite fall d own there were no tracks of space body fall being revealed after the results of deciphering space photos.


H. Mason

Orbitsal Research Exploration Pty. Ltd., 1313 Armstrong Rd., Jarrahdale, Western Australia 6203, (

The author began private research into the nature of the "1993 Banjawarn Event" in early 1995. This work is still in progress today, and the event cause is still not fully understood, but it resembles an apparent "Mini 1908 Tunguska" type event. The event occurred on or near the Banjawarn sheep station (ranch), close to the Celia Fault/Lineament, some 130km northwest of the mining town of Laverton, in the very sparsely populated and isolated semi-desert Eastern Goldfields region of Western Australia. The event commenced at about 23.00hrs on the night of the 28th. of May 1993 with the sighting of a large aerial orange-red fireball plus a short conical tail low down on the southern horizon. This "object" arced low overhead at an altitude of some 1-2000 metres in a "nap of Earth" type trajectory at less than the speed of sound making a loud pulsed roaring "diesel freight train engine" type noise in flight, before apparently diving to a ground level "impact". The "impact" was hidden behind a range of low hills located northwest of Banjawarn sheep station. This was immediately followed by :- (1) a high energy flash of blue-white light (reminiscent of a night time nuclear blast) that "lit up the surrounding 100km radius of scrub bush like day", (2) a major long drawn out explosion and a concussion blast wave, and (3) a co-incident 3.6-3.9 Richter earthquake picked up at 23 AGSO seismographs around the western half of Australia, with (4) the simultaneous projection of a large column or "flare" of orange-red coloured light vertically skyward to an altitude estimated as several kilometres, followed (5) by the slow expansion growth of a large "two setting-sun sized" orange-red hemispherical opaque light form structure, with a glowing silver lining, that remained lit up for 2 hours, on the horizon above "ground zero", in the clear cloudless, dark - no moon, windless night sky, and (6) approximately one hour after the initial earthquake at 24.00hrs another very small blue-green fireball arced high over Banjawarn station following approximately the same course as the first fireball (but originating at ground level ?) - this then created a second minor ground "impact" with an associated very minor seismic "felt" event at 24.00hrs (but apparently of insufficient energy to be detected by the AGSO seismic chain), with this "ground zero" being adjacent, or in, the hemispheric light form structure described in (5) above. The seismograph data suggests that the first incident involved a minimum of some 1-2Kt of TNT equivalent and therefore was similar in energy size to a tactical nuclear weapon blast. This region consists of a very stable Archaean age cratonic crust which is generally considered to have no prior human historical record of natural seismic events. Inspite of a considerable aerial search by light plane and detailed examination of SPOT satellite imagery no crater or airburst ground damage nor relevant fire damage has been located. Two other identical orange-red pulsed noise emitting fireballs (in October 1989 and in May or June 1993) are now known to have previously flown the same course/trajectory over Banjawarn. Two other large orange-red hemisphere static light form structures have also been observed at night northwest of Banjawarn (in 1988 and in October 1992). This and other data mitigates against bolide impact as the probable cause of this event. Several possible causes are discussed including rock fault stress induced plasma fireball and "earthquake lights", clandestine military electro-magnetic Tesla type weapon tests, or covert exotic space craft drive tests.


Yu.A. Nickolaev, P.A. Fomin

The M.A.Lavrentyev Hydrodynamics Institute Siberian Branch of Rus. Acad. Sci. 15, Academician Lavretyev Av., Novosibirsk 630090, Russia

An analysis has been carried out of an earlier hypothesis according to which all the features of the Tunguska catastrophe can be explained by an explosion of a cloud of air and methane that had been triggered off by a small rock or metal meteorite, flyin g at a relatively small velocity and at a gentle slope. The exploded cloud could have been formed as a result of a single ejection of methane into the atmosphere in a powerful jet, with a stable tor formation. To determine the place where the meteorite had fallen its possible trajectory (not a straight line) was calculated, taking into account: - mutual attraction of the Earth, the Sun and the meteorite, the EarthТs motion around the Sun and its rotation around its axis -aero-dynamic resistance to the movement of the meteorite in the atmosphere and dependence of its density on height Цa possibility of crushing of the meteorite. The meteorite was assumed to be overtaking the cloud, spherical in shape, moving at a geographical azimuth of 295 degrees. The mass losses were not taken into account. Calculations were made for iron and rock meteorites. The variables used in calculations were the meteorite dimensions, the angle of its contact with the EarthТs surface, its speed at that moment. The lower limits were set on the size and speed of the meteorite Ц they had to be sufficient to set off a deton ation in the stechiometric air Ц methane mixture. Of all the possible trajectories, those were chosen which met the following conditions: - height of the trajectory at the moment of the initial detonation was 5-7 km; - height of flying at a distance of 300km from the epicentre was no more than 100km; - meteorite had not begun disintegrating before contact with the Earth; - maximal relative speed of the Earth and the meteorite exceeded the second cosmic speed; -unperturbed meteorite orbit plane had a small inclination to the ecliptic plane and a perigee and apogee characteristic of meteorites from an asteroid belt. It was found that the above mentioned conditions are met by relatively small meteorites (with a diameter of 3-12m) whose collision speed and the angle of contact with the EarthТs surface are comparatively small (up to 3km/sec. and 20 degrees respectively

The following text was sent to A. Ol'khovatov by G. Nikolsky on Febr.4, 2000 as an "improved translation" of their abstract

*Nikolsky G.A., *Shultz E.O., ^Schnitke V.E., ^Tzinbal M.N., "Medvedev Y.D., "Byvshev M.S.

* Institute of Physics SPbGU, Russia; ^ SPb Technological University, Russia; "Institute for Astronomy Theory, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia

The analysis of observation results of geomagnetic and light phenomena during the days previous to Tunguska Cosmic Body (TCB) invasion provided us with proofs on periodicity of disturbances and the movements of their indication places from the East to the West. This data along with the conclusion made earlier by us on the TCB motion in atmosphere along Southern trajectory, pushed us to the necessity to produce its motion pattern, aimed at the defining probability of TCB transition from hyperbolic orbit to elliptic with perigee at the 62░ northern latitude and farther to round orbit. While modelling TCB motion we took into account gravitation accelerations from the Earth, the Moon and the Sun as well as accelerations appeared in the process of body deceleration in the Earth atmosphere. Calculating the resistance of the medium we took into consideration that part of the energy, released in barrier layer, is transferred onto the body surface, which causes its warming and sublimation of comet substance. This, in its turn, causes change in body mass and body midel section. It was supposed that before entering atmosphere a body has spherical shape, R=115 m and average density 0.8 g/cm3 and that while moving in the atmosphere it keeps the shape and the density. For retrospective modeling as starting conditions the true place and time of TCB explosion were taken. There were different variants of modulus meanings of azimuth and inclination of velocity vector to the surface of the Earth as well as warmth of sublimation of body surface layer. Retrospective prediction of the body motion has shown that there is a set of initial data, under which a body could produce some revolutions around the Earth, after which it changes its orbit into hyperbolic concerning the Earth and then goes out of the Earth vicinities. For such trajectories the following scenario of body motion evolution is typical: It enters the atmosphere with hyperbolic velocity and is moving for some time losing velocity. As a result of deceleration a body becomes Earth satellite with 10 hours period and with an orbit with great eccentricity. Then drawing nearer to the Earth for repeated times the body moves along the orbits with smaller eccentricities and after third passing of perigee in 105 min it arrive in the TCB explosion area. On the height of 24 km the body has the following dynamic parameters: velocity modulus - 6.5 km/sec; azimuth 193░ and inclination angle to the surface 4░; body radius decreases up to 92 meters. For modeling body parting and further body plunging into atmosphere there is a need in accurate specifications of proceeding data on TCB structure. It is assumed that after parting TCB into 4 - 5 large fragments (in the height of 25 km) as a result of sharp increase of deceleration an intensive loss of comet substance mass took place, which led to the formation in the tail of each fragment an extensive cloud. These clouds were a mixture of evaporated carbohydrates and air. Under velocity decrease to 2.5 km/sec (on the height of 8 km), the front of burning mixture wave joined the main volume of cloud spreading over 15 km (diameter 4 - 5 km), after that so called volumetric explosion happened, its duration was 5 sec. In 3 sec shock air wave reached the taiga and threw down trees. In 2 - 3 seconds incandescent gases mass strike down and it scorched all surfaces it met - trees (ribbon burn), bushes, and moss. There were some more volumetric explosions of other fragments, following with intervals of 10 - 15 second, they expanded taiga destruction. Shock waves being reflected from the Earth surface produced an additional impulse for moving up explosion product mass and with mixture of non-react carbohydrate gases and water vapors involved into it. In 5 - 8 minutes great mass of neutral products (~ 4.6 ┤ 1035mol.), thrown away by the explosion will find itself in ionosphere, move apart plasma to peripheral area of geomagnetic disturbance. Restoration of initial shape of the local geomagnetic field will be dragged out for hours. The original explanation followed in 20 hours behind explosion optical anomalies above Europe is received.


A.Yu. Ol'khovatov

Moscow, Russia

At the first glance the felled-tree area in the Tunguska Event (TE) is one of the major arguments in favour of the meteorite interpretation of the event. However, a detailed study of the felled-tree area, carried out by the author of the paper, testifies against the meteorite interpretation. Thus, the considerable radial symmetry in the shape of the felled-tree area could be explained, within the framework of the meteorite interpretation, only by the fact that the лmeteoroid╗ лexploded╗ solely due to its internal and not kinetic energy. In o ther words, the hypothetical лTunguska meteoroid╗ had to consist of super powerful explosive. This proposition is based on the considerable central symmetry in the shape of the felled-tree area, which is usually explained ,within the meteorite interpretation, by the spherical air shock wave caused by the лmeteoroid explosion╗, while the axially s ymmetrical deviations are considered as caused by the ballistic (conical) shock wave. However, a лmeteoroid explosionТ, or to be more exact its fragmentation due to increased aerodynamic loads (i.e. due to its kinetic energy) is incapable of generating a spherical shock wave. This is conditioned by the fact that when the meteoroid is dest royed, the total impulse of the of the generated air shock waves, according to the law of conservation of impulse, is equal to the impulse of the meteoroid before fragmentation (the cloud of fragments is quickly slowed down in the atmosphere). Another feature that is difficult to explain in terms of meteorite hypothesis is that in the epicentral area of felled trees there has been found a statistically significant turn in the felled trees relative to the radial ( from the epicentre) position o n the average of 2,5 degrees clockwise /1/. According to our estimation, the magnitude of the impulse moment, produced by the лmeteorite explosion╗ is 10^14 - 10^15 [N*m*s]. A ╗meteorite explosion╗ could not generate such a huge impulse moment. Thus, the meteorite interpretation is incapable of explaining the peculiarities of the felled trees. References 1. Fast, B.G. Statisticheskii analiz parametrov Tungusskogo vyvala. //Problema Tungusskogo meteorita. Vyp.2TGU, Tomsk, 1967, s.40.


A.Yu. Ol'khovatov

Moscow, Russia

A detailed analysis shows that the body of information on the Tunguska event cannot be explained by a large meteoroid passing through the atmosphere. At the same time the body of data on the Tunguska event is in concordance with the supposition that it h ad been conditioned by the tectonic processes/1-4/ stirring to activity. There is numerous evidence of activization of tectonic processes in the region of the Tunguska event at the end of June, 1908. Besides, there are several signs of tectonic process activization at the same period of time on the planetary level as well /3, 4/. There is a considerable correlation between the geological structure of the Tunguska event region and the various manifestations of the latter /1-4/. All the eye-witness reports of luminous bodies correspond well with the phenomena observed during tectonic processes activization /1-3/. The seismic phenomena that were observed (namely, the affected area, duration and the character of seismic phenomena) do not correspond to the meteorite interpretation but correspond well to the tectonic one. A detailed analysis of the felled-tree area shows that it could not have been caused by a meteorite explosion. But there have been known cases of small felled-tree areas, caused by explosion-like tectonic processes/2,3/. The geo chemical anomalies discovered, including the iridium one, correspond well to the volcanic emanations, especially if the fact that the epicentre of the Tunguska event is in the centre of the crater of a paleo-volcano, a former лhotspot╗, is taken i nto account. Analysis of the large-scale atmospheric anomalies observed at the end of June Цbeginning of July, 1908 showed that just as the Tunguska event, they are a result of the peculiarities of the geophysical situation of that period of time /1,3,4/. References Ol'khovatov A.Yu.// Izv. AN SSSR, Phizika Zemli, 1991, N7, p. 105. Ol'khovatov A.Yu.//Poisk, 1996, N46, p.15. Ol'khovatov A.Yu.// Znanie-Sila, 1996, N12, p.32. Ol'khovatov A.Yu.// Science in Russia, 1998, N3, p.45


A. Orekhova, A. K. Gorelova.

Krasnoyarsk, Russia

Meteorites have always been the scientistsТ object of study. A piece of the meteorite лPallasov Iron╗, weighing 105 g. , given to the museum in 1927 by the professor A. E. Fersman on behalf of Academy of Sciences of USSR, has become the first exhibit of the Krasnoyarsk regional museum in this sphere. The Tunguska meteorite is among the outstanding and unique events in the history of meteorites and astronomy.According to the present materials it is possible to trace the history of studying the nature of this phenomenon. The collection of the first explorer of Tunguska meteorite really deserves attention. It was L. A. Kulik (1883-1942). The collection consists of personal effects: map case, field kettle, fur- mitten etc, and published scientific works. Three works of Kul ik with his autograph and dedicatory inscription to A. Y. Tugarinov, the former director of the Krai museum with words of gratitude for helping the expedition, are of a great interest to explorers. While being in an expedition in Turukhansk region in 190 8 A. Y. Tugarinov observed the Tunguska event. L. A Kulik mentioned this fact in his work лFor the history of a fireball╗ 30.VI. 1908. Manuscript sources of I. M. Suslov (1893-1972), the first chairman of the Krasnoyarsk committee of the North are the evidence of his assistance in studying the Tunguska meteorite and of his links with Kulik. He made a priceless contribution to the histor y of studying the Tunguska problem at its first stage. The first questionnaire of the eyewitnesses was drawn up by Suslov, and it was also he, who wrote the article лFor the Search of the Big Meteorite of the year 1908╗. Published in лMirovedenie╗ Magazi ne #1, 1997, they played a great role in organizing the first expedition by the member of staff of scientific of the Academy of Science, L. A. Kulik. During all his life I. M. Suslov was interested in studying the Tunguska phenomenon. The archives of the museum keep evidence of his interest in the meteorite.Here are located his various works and his manuscripts entitled лThe history of the problem of the Tunguska meteorite╗ and the tale лAbout the Great Wonder╗ as well as his correspondece with G. F. Pl ehanov, the leader and organizer of the IIE With the IIE began a new, more detailed disclosure of the mysteries of the Tunguska catastrophe, the main trends of which are introduced by museums, negatives, slides and photographs. There is material, corroborating facts of mutation in the area of Tung uska explosion: Cuts of various wood types with the marked growth of the wood- pulp after 1908, as well as polyconifer of a pinetree bunch and albino animals In 1988 the museum got an easel which belonged to a participant of KulikТs expedition of 1939, N. I. Fiodorov, honored artist of RSFSR. Thanks to it, the first sketches of the region of catastrophe and of the explosion consequences have been made. Based on this collection is the exhibition, devoted to the 80th anniversary since the meteorite impact. The problem of the Tunguska meteorite became a cause for many discussions and gave life to many hypotheses. But further study of this unique natural phenomenon is needed, and this means that the search for materials will be continued.


N. A. Orekhova.

84 Krasnoyarsk Krai Regional museum, Dubrovinskogo, Krasnoyarsk, Russia.

The funds of the Krasnoyarsk krai regional museum keep the materials of Innokentyi Michailovitch Suslov, the first chairman of the Krasnoyarsk committee of the North, attached to the presidium of VZIK, scientist, North explorer, candidate of geographical sciences, ethnographer, geologist, who made a great contribution tothe study of material and spiritual culture of the indigenous population of the Northern Krasnoyarsk region. During his fruitful life Innokentyi Michailovitch Suslov collected lotТs of information about Siberia and the Far North. His original manuskripts: his journals, notebooks, memoirs, memorandums, which are the evidence of his office, scientific, pedagogic, music and museum activity, make the base of this fund. His name is often mentioned in scientific literature devoted to the first period of exploring the place of impact of the Tunguska meteorite. L.A. Kulik, E. L. Krinov, V. I. Vronskyi and the others wrote about him. I. M. Suslov didnТt have an opportunity to be solely focus on the Tunguska problem, this work was done at the same time with his principal official duties. For 11 years he was connected with the work of the Committee of the North, attached to the Presidi um of VZIK, at the beginning as the first chairman of the Krasnoyarsk Committee of the North, later as itТs member. In March 1926 I. M. Suslov undertook an expedition for scientific research work and calling Tunguska meetings down by the river Chiurna. At the same time there was carried out an interrogation of the eye- witnesses of the Tunguska meteorit fall, drawn up the first questionnaire and sketchy plan of the places, where Evenky had met the vestige of this phenomenon. Exactly this map and the article лTo the search of big meteorit of the year of 1908╗, published in the magazine лMirovedenie╗ #1, 1927, played a great role in organizing the first expedition to the region of catastrophy by the member of staff of the scientific or other learned body of the Academy of Science L. A. Kulik. During KulikТs time in Krasnoyarsk I. M. Suslov supplied him with the detail ed instructions and the letters of recommendation, which helped greatly in the expeditionТs work. Innokentyi Michailovitch himself headed the Siberian detachment of the resque party, which was sent to help Kulik in 1928. He also participated in the compl etion of the magnitometric surveying in the area of the supposed craters from the meteorit debris. In his interview to лKrasnoyarskyi rabotchyi╗ L. A. Kulik highly valued the hekp of such an important collegue as I. M. Suslov in the catastrophy region, h aving a profound respect for the achievements of the Soviet science. The fruitful and interesting life of this person was entirely devoted to the studying and opening up the Far North and his native Krasnoyarsk region. I. M. Suslov made a priceless cjntrimution to the history of studying the Tunguska problem. It was he wh o collected an invaluable information on this topic: notes, conclusions, hypothesis, articles, memoirs. Although on pension already and seriously ill, he didnТt stop working on the manuscript of his book лThe history of the Tunguska meteorite╗ and the ta le лAbout a Great Wonder╗, which are unfortunately not published. The careful studying of these works would let embelish the knowledge about the problem of the Tunguska meteorite and enrich the ethnographical explorations.


G. V. Plekhanov, L. G.Plekhanova

Tomsk State University, KSA, Lenin st., 36, Tomsk, 634010, Russia

The trials to determine projection of Tunguska Cosmic Body (TCB) motion trajectory on the surface of the Earth were being undertaken not once and part of them is listed here, below; we state the direction from where, presumably, TSB was moving, is stated. Suslov I.M.(nearer witnesses) - 250 degrees; Astapovich I.S.(witnesses) - 190 degrees; Sitinskaya E.S.(witnesses) - 165 degrees; Krinov E.L.(witnesses) - 140 degrees; Koval V.I.(trees broke down)) - 126 degrees; Zotkin I.T.(witnesses) - 120 degrees; Fast V.G.(symmetry axis of radial fall-out of wood area) - 111..115 degrees; Ilyin A.G.(лradiation burn╗ symmetry axis) - 95 degrees; Fast V.G.(axis of radiality deviations) - 90 degrees; Yavnel A.A.(witnesses) - 70..130 degrees. Existence and quantity of symmetry axis deviations of the directions of wood fall-out from sharply radial in Eastern side are not less than 6 degrees, which allows to estimate the contribution of ballistic wave in the whole picture of destruction as not less than 10% of total energy. It comes out of it that a body with great mass and great cross section had fully decelerated at the end of its way in the air and had generated shock air wave. As TSB didnТt fall out onto the Earth, then at the end of the way it has velocity comparable to the velocity of the Earth rotation for this latitude, which had summed up the velocities, which was reflected in the turning of trajectory projection. This su pposition is confirmed by the fact that symmetry axis deviations in Southern- Eastern quadrant are 8 - 12 degrees higher than in other quadrants. Taking into consideration steepness of trajectory inclination to the Earth surface, it can be assumed that in its completion stage the trajectory projection turned to Western direction in 15 - 20 degrees. In this case the shape of the wood radial fall-ou t is caused by TSB motion velocity exceeding over the Earth rotation velocity. Symmetry axis of ribbon-type damages of tree branches, (trees, survived after the catastrophe), is connected with initial segment of two velocities composition, and the axis o f the symmetry axis deviations themselves had resulted from velocities composition, when linear velocity of TSB motion became less than the Earth motion linear velocity for this latitude. If the ideas represented in this article describe truly the possible mechanism of projection development, then specialists in mechanics can calculate its numerical meanings.


N. L. Sapronov, лKrasnoyarskgeolsyomka╗, V. I. Valchak, Vanavara Party of the 3-d Gravimetric Expedition (Vanavara - Krasnoyarsk), D. F. Anfinogenov, PLL лTROTs╗, Tomsk, Russia

Acertain crisis in the search and identification of the dispersed and transformed substance of the Tunguska Cosmic Body (TCB) raises interest and intensifies the necessity for a detailed study of the material background in the area of the TCB fall and th e adjoining sectors. This task is closely interrelated with the task of a detailed description of the basic geophysical fields of the area of the fall from the standpoint of studying the physics of the head sector of the mass-energy discharge of the Giga ntic Tunguska Bolide. Raising and studying the following questions seem to be urgent: 1. Granulometric, mineralogic and chemical description of aerosol deposits in peat at the depths exceeding the upper limits of permafrost in 1908 in the sectors of heightened aerosol concentration of 1908. Carrying out a comparative analysis of the char acteristics of the strata, лpoints╗ and areas in relations to 1908. 2. Studying the interdependence of the thin structure of magnetic declination with the thin structure of the picture of tree-drop directions at the typical sectors of the forest fall. 3. Forecasting geochemical areas of macro- and micro-element dispersion on the basis of detailed geological, tectonic and landscape - hydrological mapping of the zone of macro- and micro-element content in the soil and vegetable substratum in the fall ar ea, in particular, in the sectors of the so called ytterbium anomaly, heightened ash-content, isotope anomalies of the close under-trajectory zone. 4. Testing stream and lake bottom deposits along the periphery of the sheer and partial forest fall in the zone of the TCB fall as well as along the under-trajectory stretch and the trail of the local fall-out of the TCB лexposion╗ products. It is considered to be necessary to arrange, on the basis of the State Reserve лTungussky╗, a universal geological education course on the subject of the characteristics of the fall area and neighbouring sectors for visitors and researchers of the area o f the Tunguska catastrophe of 1908.


N.A.Sapronov, V.I.Valchak, D.F.Anfinogenov

State Enterprise лKrasnoyarsk Geological Survey╗, Krasnoyarsk, Russia. Tunguska State Nature Reservation, village Vanavara Kezhemskiy district, Krasnoyarsk region, Russia. TROZ Co ltd., Tomsk, Russia.

Radial forest-fall after the Tunguska Meteorite (TM) explosion is located on the territory of early Triassic basalt volcano (Sapronov, Sobolenko, 1975; Sapronov, 1986). Nowadays volcanic edifice has been considerably destroyed and on its day surface the root is exposed: intrusions of feeding magmatic system, bordering highly raised tectonoblock of base, which is composed of Permian coal-bearing deposits. In the southern periphery and in some places inside the volcano there are developed intrusions, mono- and polymineral veins of hydrotermal rocks and of body of sulphate mineralization of carbonitite volcanism, appeared later. Volcano structures have their specific highly intensive magnetic fields. Dolerites consist of magnetite, which enriches eluvium, talus and allyuvium in the district. Carbonatites bring rare-metal and rare-earth mineralization, polymetals, boron, strontiu m, barite, fluorine and a range of other elements. In coaly aleurolites, coals and sandstones with detrit there are rare-earth elements and phosphorus. All this testifies that numerous geophysical and material anomalies defined in the process of TM substance searh, including those found in plants, can have Earth, geochemical origin. In connection with weak geological research work of TM area, it is recommended to organize geological map compiling with scale 1:50 000 and continuous replenishing the data-base with geological data from all the field researchers. While deciphering aerospace photos in upper reaches of the river Chamba along TM flight route there was found a ring shape morphostructure with diameter 20 km, resembling impact crater. In its center there is magnetic anomaly of non-determined origin. A path from Vanavara to Ilimpea village crosses this structure, which V.Shishkov had to pass in 1911. This object should be studied more thoroughly.



Institute for Geosphere Dynamics Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskiy prospekt, 38, Moscow, 117979, Russia

Theoretical studies of flight, ablation and destruction of hypothetical Tunguska meteoroid in the atmosphere, probably, in the future will be able to answer the question on its origin. There is no confident answer yet because of extraordinary complicated radiation- gasdynamic tasks . It is necessary to improve models, theory and experiment development in future. In the present work one aspect of flowing over a body is examined, which was not taken into account in the simplified models and even was not s tudied at all in the theory of bolide aerodynamics. We are speaking on the idea that the stability of supersonic regime of flowing over a body can be spoiled. As it is known, air wave can become non-stable under certain motion of shock adiabat and under the force of advanced radiation. Moreover unbalanced ionization assists widening of unbalanced area. As the analysis of shock adiabat in the air shows, such лnatural╗ unbalanced shock wave can be generated in the cause of flowing over meteoroids. лStandard╗ regime of flowing can be disturbed because of in homogeneity arising in the flow, among them those caused by small particles, cut out away from frontal surface of a body. During a flight at rather large height, shock-compressed layer of air in front of a body can become extraordinary thin and sensitive to disturbances on the account of unbalanced radiation, leading to temperature decrease and to increase of gas compression behind the front. Calculations, carried out as a part of this work were made by solving Aler equations by different numerical methods, for small enough nets. They show that in the process of flowing along cylinder by gas under ratio of specific heat lower than 1.25 there are regimes of flowing with powerful vortexes behind the front of head shock wave. After eliminating artificial disturbance of the current, which was introduced into calculations, vortex formations continue to exist during infinitely long time. The shock wave itself takes changing wavy shape, the pressure on body surface fluctuates, its maximum meaning in some points on the surface can be dozens times higher than deceleration pressure. Near frontal surface of a cylinder supersonic current is produced, i ts direction is to the symmetry axis. The same currents were received for flowing over a step. Effect turned out to be the stronger the less is the ratio of specific heat of gas behind the front. Further study of vortex regimes is required. Though even now it can be stated that Tunguska phenomenon could be originated from falling down a rock asteroid in case it didnТt provide good aerodynamic properties and the flight took place in the regime wit h vortex formation behind the front of a shock wave. From one side the destruction of a rock body in such a regime would start earlier on the account of locally higher dynamics loads onto frontal surface, than it could come out of generally accepted idea s. From another side powerful vortex currents of compressed gas behind the front will assist more intensive destruction and ablation of rock meteoroid.


E. Tagliaferri, M.C. Pineda de Carias, A.Ocampo, J.Boravicka, and R. Rivera

The event on June 30, 1908 in the Tunguska region has perplexed scientists since its occurrence. Such a massive amount of energy in a single detonation naturally leads to the impact of a large meteoroid as the cause. However, the lack of a crater, meteorites or tell-tale atomic species (such as elevated levels of Iridium) is a source of consternation to scientists used to redundant confirmation of the cause of an event such as this. In this paper we present an alternative explanation and describe recent events ( of much smaller scale) which also appear to witnesses as meteors. In particular, we describe in detail a series of eyewitness reports of events which occurred on the night of November 23, 1996 at approximately 04:00 UT(22:00 local time on November 22), over the territory of the Santa Barbara region of Northern Honduras, and which were reported as meteors. A wide area in western Honduras was illuminated by what were variously described as fireballs or flames in the sky. The events were accompanied by sounds described as explosions or sonic booms; several people reported the explosions caused their houses to shake. Four separate expeditions to the area were organized by the Astronomical Observatory of the National Autonomous University of Honduras, the first in December 1996 and the last in February 1997. The fourth expedition comprised an international team composed of the authors of this paper. Although there may in fact have been a meteoroid impact that night at about 0400 UT, it would not explain a large body of information obtained from witnesses of the events of that night which reportedly occurred both before and after that time over a wide geographical area.


D. L Free

Aerospace Corporation El Segundo, California

An assumption made by virtually all investigators studying the 1908 Tunguska event is that a meteoroid was inloved. The fact that eyewitnesses saw a descending luminous body has given rise to this assumption, but the existence of a fireball or other lumin osities should not be construed so narrowly. There is a growing body of evidence that fireballs not associated with meteoroids occur rather routinely. Two classes of fireball events are cited for which meteoroid-entry origin cannot be reasonably argued. The spate of fireballs observed in the U.S. in Colorado during January and February 1998 is an example of an oft-repeated episode in which fire balls a re seen to occur with unusual frequency over a span of a few weeks or months in a limited geogrphical region. Such sequences surely imply non-meteoritic processes. A second class involves fireballs associated with crater-like formations on the ground. In variably, no mteoritic material is found to explain the crater, which then ends up being attributed to some other natural cause. The number of similar occurrences is such that chance coincidence between two unrelated mechanisms does not constitute a sati sfactory explanation. Also, the associated fireballs often exhibit decidedly non-meteoritic trajectories.


V.I. Kharevich

Lesosibirsk Pedagogical Institute, Kras. State University 63131, Lesosibirsk, 42, Pobeda St., Russia

The mirror-smooth surface of the jewel of Eastern Siberia, the Baikal Lake reminds one of a huge bowl of a radiotelescope. In its focal plane, situated in the environs of the town of Lesosibirsk in Krasnoyarsky Krai, there is another lake bearing the sam e beautiful name of Baikal. Its great depth Ц 3,5m in the north only half a metre from the bank and 26m at a distance of a few dozens of metres, as well as an obvious elevation on the bank in the north-east, reminiscent of a powerful ejection and a slightly elongated shape, close t o the circumference of its banks, compel one to suppose a possible meteoritic origin of the lake. The flatness of the surrounding country-side and the small age of the trees, growing on its banks are additional arguments and the recollections of the old inhabitants are evidence of almost a century since its foundation -all this testifies against its technogenic origin. A double bottom, the upper one at a depth of about 2m from the surface of the water, consisting of felled trees and moss covering them a nd the steep precipitous banks give good grounds for a supposition of its meteoritic origin. On June 30, 1908, the inhabitants of Kamensk,a small settlement situated only4kmto the east from the lake, observed a fiery column that shot through in the north-east direction, and a powerful trembling of the soil and great waves that appeared on the Ye nisei River testify to a possibility of some fragments of the disintegrating meteoritic body, falling in the neighbourhood. Several lakes in the neighbouring taiga Backwoods, difficult of access for the investigators are still awaiting a thorough investigation. A grandson of an eyewitness of the Tunguska meteorite, Saveliev Vladimir, took measurements of one such lake in the North Yeniseisk district. The round shap e and a great depth of about 30 m do not preclude the validity of his supposition of its meteoritic origin, especially since it is located in rocky soil. Semionov V.I., Krasovsky A. and Zalozhuk P.A. reported other lakes, having a round shape and a great depth. The Baikal Lake, situated only 2km from the Yeniseisk highway, presents a perfect object of research, especially since a forest road leading to it is usable in summer and autumn for motor transportation, which the members of the Siberian Tunguska Cosmic Phenomenon Fund used when the visited the lake on October 15 and 16 .As Lavbin Yu.D., the President of the Fund claimed on first seeing the lake, it presents a classical example of a meteoritic bowl.


L. P. Khryanina

The epicentre of the Tunguska explosion is in the northen part of the depression (dia.> 8 km) which is outlined with a breached swell and a round (if to look from above) Stoikovich Mountain surrounded with a circular marsh. Morp hologically the depression looks like an impact structure. In the 70-s it was mapped by the group of N. L. Sapronov (SD of AS of USSR) as a paleo-volcano with the central and numerous lateral necks and an outlining conic dike. When concidering a perfect geological map draun by N. L. Sapronov (1981) it is seen that Stoikovich Mountain is surrounded with a circular break-up. The next circular component is a swell with trap intrusion. To the SW a fragment of the circular break-up is formed by the Khushmo r iver dale. A system of radial break-ups having a cobweb pattern characteristic of meteorite structures can be perfectly seen. Presumably, Stoikovich and Farrington mountains are the central elevations of brought together and simultaneously formed meteori te craters. In the East and the NW of the depression there are two more circular structures without central elevations. We have studied ground edges of rocks taken in different years from лJohnТs stone╗ and Farrington Mountain. They represent tufagenic gravelite-sandstones and sandstones proper. In either of rocks (which according to lithology were referred by geologists of Expedition N3 of лAerogeologiya╗ to the lower strataof the Permian formation) we found the signs of shock-metamorphism, primarily - in quartz grains. These signs find their expression in deformation of the crystal structure, the presence of rough basal t cohesion, planar elements (one-two systems), partial or full isotropization of some quarz grains, as well as the presence of decrystallized diaplect glass. It seems Stoikovich and Farrington mountains are the central elevations of brought together and partically simultaneously formed meteorite craters. In the East and the NW of the depression there are two more circular structures without central elevations . The data produced allow to assume that лthe Great Depression╗ is a complex, at least, triplex meteorite crater formed in the P-T time - in the epoch of trap magmatism. But the ultimate tectonic structure of this depression and the correlation of the me teorite explosion with trap volcanism can be cleared up only after carrying out geologico-geophysical work in the depression and the surrounding area.


V. E. Chebotaryov

The academician M.F.Reshetnyv Science Production Institution for Applied Mechanics (Zheleznogorsk, Krasnoyarsk region, Russia)

The circumstances previous to Tunguska Cosmic Body explosion on the 30th of June 1908 point only to light nights. Registration by optical means or visually a space body (asteroid, comet,...) coming nearer to the Earth was not corroborated. To explain thi s paradox the analysis of non-observation state for space body coming nearer to the Earth has been carried out. That is: angle position with respect to the Sun; distance up to the Earth; observerТs position on the land, observing conditions, optical pellucidity of observation means; brightness of space body in accordance with the distance to the Sun and to the Earth On the basis of the undertaken analysis there have been formulated the limits of Tunguska cosmic body orbit parameters, its sizes, taking into account the actual point of meeting the Earth by Tunguska cosmic body as well as the diapason of movement traje ctories projections on the Earth surface calculated from the results of eye-witnesses testimony analysis. The requirements have been settled to guaranteed discovery of heavenly bodies with sizes which are not dangerous if such body collides the Earth.


L. E. Epictetova

Complex Independent Expedition Tomsk, 36 pr. Lenina, building of SRI BB

(The English version of the abstract is absent. In a few words, it is about the complex character of the optical phenomena of the event. It is proposed that the "Tunguska body" have fragmentated before crossing Lena-river.)


L. E. Epictetova

Complex Independent Expedition Tomsk, 36 pr. Lenina, building of SRI BB

There are over 900 testimonies given by witnesses of the Tunguska phenomenon. They were received from people of almost all the parts of Central Siberia. In this work the field of sound phenomena has been investigated with the view to making more precise the trajectory of the Tunguska body. The testimonies of witnesses from the points of mid-Angara area and the upper reaches of the Lower Tunguska, in which the direction to the source of sound conciderably differs from the direction to the epicentre, prove the fact that the Tunguska body pro duced the ballistic wave. A symmetry relative to the axis approximately coinciding with the axis of the forest fall in the place of the body drop thus becomes evident. The deviation from a circular simmetry of the sound field at the distances of 500 km a nd more from the epicentre has been studied. The intensity of the sound phenomena has been evaluated in accordance with witnessesТ observations, that is, by direct ratio of the number of testimonies containing a sound phenomena aspect to the whole number of testimonies received in this area. In the polar system of coordinates the area was devided into squares with azimuth intervals of 10 degrees and distance intervals of 100 km. It turned out that the field of the sound phenomena is in many respects similar to лthe butterfl y╗ of the forest fall. So one of the maxima of the sound field is in the azimuth interval of 160 - 190 degrees thus spreading the southern wing of the forest fall лbutterfly╗. However, the intensity of this maximum (0.7) is somewh at lower than the intensity of the maximum (0.9) of the south-western direction with the azimuth of approximately 220 degrees. In accordance with the testimonies from the areas of the Lena and Lower Tunguska rivers (500 km and 350 km from the epicentre) two maxima of the sound phenomena with the azimuth approximately of 130 degrees and 100 degrees have been revealed. They suggest a bell-angle between two fronts of the ballistic wave . The fronts were initially formed as a result of interaction between the ballistic wave from the trajektory of the cosmic body and the surface of the Earth. These fronts were spreading in the south-western and the north-eastern directions. It should be pointed out that the trajectories of the Tunguska body suggested earlier are close by their azimuths to the sound field maxima discovered by our research: E. L. KrinovТs trajectory (azimuth 137 degrees), V. G. KonenkinТs traj ectory (acsoss Preobrazhenka, azimuth 103 degrees), I. S. AstapovichТs trajectory (azimuth 184 degr. and 192 degr.). As for the лsouthern╗ trajectories by I. S. Astapovich and A. V. Voznesenski their conclusion was evidently made under the influence of the fact that there were no sound phenomena to the east of Lake Baikal. This can be explaned by a complex character of the sound field, by the fact that the border of the wing of the sound field лbutterfly╗ passed across the Baikal. It follows from the analysis of the sound field that the projection of the trajectory of the Tunguska body on the Earth lies within the bell-angle between the fronts of the ballistic wave. However, some facts show th at its azimuth underwent certain changes deviating from the plane of a big circle.


L. V. Granitskiy

Scientific research of Physics and engineering institute of Krasnoyarsk State University.

The accumulated information about TCB parameters, got as a result of eyewitnesses interrogation and the explorations of some authors, comes to the following : the rendezvous time of the TCB with the EarthТs atmosphere: June 30, 1908, in a period of time from 7 to 8 a.m. local time. location of explosion of TCB (epicenter is on the EarthТs surface) is in latitude 60053`09`` North, longitude 1010 53`40`` East. an azimuth of he flight while entering the atmosphere: 100o-140o an angle of entrance into the atmosphere: 15o-30o entry speed into the atmosphere: 7-50 km/sec the mass of the body: 10^9 kg density of the body: 0,001-1g/sm3 The most of attention should be payed to the work of K. Y. Kondratiev and others. TCBЧthe core of the comet. Any way taking into account the time of the event, 7-8 a. m. , azimuth of the flight and the speed of entering the atmosphere 7-11 km/sec, there accure the problems of identification the body flight path, before its rendezvous with the EarthТs atmosphere . Depending on the vector speed of the body (meteorite, comet) with regard to the speed vector of the Earth in Orbit, when round the Sun, the speeds will be either above 30 km/sec, or below 30 km/sec. While the Earth and the body rendezvous is in the morning hours itТs important to have the perigee of the body less than 1 astronomic unit (a. u.) and apogee more than 1 a. u. In this case the Earth catches up with the body and the variant of their rende zvous in the morning hours is possible. The rough calculations show that the realization of forming such an orbits for the cosmic bodies (perigee less than 1 a. u., the speed near the EarthТs orbit above 30 km/sec ) possible in case of these bodies inhibition in the atmospheres of the planet. Venus, as an example. In our case the aerodynamic inhibition in the EarthТs atmosphere around the antipode is above Antarctica. The fact of iridium anomaly, found in Antarctica, speaks well for this hypothesis. At the present time the detailed calculations are being done, according to some points, listed above. As for the internal type of the catastrophe the superposition of the events is available. The TCB explosion could cause the exit of light-weight carbon hydride fractions. With the EarthТs atmosphere they created a huge charge and caused an explosion.


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